Recruitment, Selection, Training & Development
The prime concern of the staffing function in the management process is the timely fulfilling of the manpower requirements within an organisation. It starts with ascertaining the required number of various categories of employees for the organisation. This is done through several methods like job analysis, workload analysis, etc. The next thing is the recruitment exercise, followed by selecting the right person through tests and interviews and making their appointments. This is followed by necessary introduction of the work environment and the rules of compensation, promotion, transfer etc. Thus, the various steps involved in the process of staffing are as follows.
The objective of recruitment is to attract potential employees with the necessary qualification, in the adequate number for the jobs available. Hence, recruitment may be defined as the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation.
Process of Recruitment
The various activities involved with the process of recruitment includes
- Identification of the different sources of manpower supply,
- Assessment of their validity,
- Choosing the most suitable source or sources
- Inviting applications from the prospective candidates, for the vacancies.
Sources of Recruitment
The requisite positions may be filled up from within the organisation or from outside. Thus, there are two sources of recruitment:
- There are two important sources of internal recruitment, namely, transfers and promotions.
- The various external sources of recruitment are:
- Direct recruitment notice placed on the notice-board of the enterprise specifying the details of the jobs available.
- Media Advertisements – Newspapers
- Campus Recruitment
- Recommendations of Employees
- Employment Exchange run by government – Example Rajasthan Employment Exchange
- Publishing on company website.
- Unsolicited Application – Many reputed business organisations keep a database of unsolicited applicants in their offices. A list of such job-seekers can be prepared and can be screened to fill the vacancies as they arise.
- Through Private Employment Agencies.
When an adequate number of applications/names of interested candidates have been collected through the recruitment exercises the selection process starts. Selection is the process of choosing from among the pool of the prospective job candidates developed at the stage of recruitment. The effectiveness of the selection process would ultimately be tested in terms of on-the-job of the chosen person.
Process of Selection
The important steps in the process of selection include:
- Preliminary Screening
- Selection Test: Various tests employed include:
- Intelligence Tests
- Aptitude Tests
- Personality Tests
- Trade Tests
- Interest Tests
- Selection Interview
- Reference and Background Checks
- Medical Examination
- Job Offer – Issue of Appointment letter
Induction or Orientation is the process of introducing new employees to the organisation and familiarising him/her with the rules and policies of the organisation. A proper induction programme is likely to reduce his anxiety on how to cope with the work and how to become part of the organisation and helps in development of a favourable attitude towards the organisation and the job.
Training & Development
Training and Development is an attempt to improve the current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge.
Every one must have the opportunity to rise to the top. The best way to provide such an opportunity is to facilitate employee learning. Organisations have either in-house training centers or have forged alliances with training and educational institutes to ensure continuing learning of their employees.
- Education is the process of increasing the knowledge and understanding of employees.
- It does not provide definite answers, but rather develops a logical and rational mind.
- Education is broader in scope than training. Training is tied to the goals of organisations more than to the goals of the individual.
- Training is any process by which the aptitudes, skills and abilities of employees to perform specific jobs are increased.
- It is a process of learning new skills and application of knowledge.
Methods of Training:
There are different methods of giving training to the employees which can be divided into two broad categories.
- On-the-Job methods
- Apprenticeship Programmes
- Job Rotation
- Internship Training
- Mentorship/ Coaching
- Off-the-Job methods
- Class Room Lectures/ Conferences
- Case studies
- Movies & Video shows
- Vestibule Training: Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will be using, but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor.
- Programmed Instructions
- Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. It covers not only those activities which improve job performance but also those which bring about growth of the personality and actualisation of their potential capacities.
All organisations have some formal or informal means of appraising their employee’s performance. Performance appraisal means evaluating an employee’s current and/or past performance as against certain predetermined standards.
The performance appraisal process, includes defining the job, appraising performance and providing feedback.
No organisation can attract and retain qualified employees without offering them a fair compensation. Compensation, therefore, refers to all forms of pay or rewards going to employees.
Compensation may be in the form of:
- Direct financial payments like wages, salaries, incentives, commissions and bonuses or
- Indirect payments like employer paid insurance and vacations.
Compensation may be divided into two categories:
- Base/primary compensation.
- It is a fixed amount paid every month to an employee. It includes wages, salary and allowances paid to an employee irrespective of his performance.
- Supplementary compensation.
- It refers to the compensation paid to the employees to motivate them to work more efficiently.
- It is also known as incentive compensation.
- The incentives may be monetary or non-monetary.
Promotion & Transfer
It becomes necessary for all organisations to address career related issues and provide avenues for promotion to their employees. When an employee is assigned a job involving greater responsibilities, more pay, higher status and prestige than his/her present job, it is known as promotion. Promotion generally mean more pay, responsibility and job satisfaction. This practice helps to improve the motivation, loyalty and satisfaction level of employees. It has a great psychological impact over the employees because a promotion at the higher level may lead to a chain of promotions at lower levels in the organisation.
Transfers involves involves shifting of an employee from one job to another, one department to another or from one shift to another, without a substantive change in the responsibilities and status of the employee. Thus, transfer does not usually involve any increase in pay or a superior status.