Mountains make up large proportion of the earth’s surface. Some of the mountain systems contain ranges spread over hundreds of kilometres. This posts summaries important mountains of the world based on their mode of formation.
A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth surface.Definition of Mountain
When these mountains are arranged in a line, then it is called a mountain range.Mountain Range
Types of Mountains:
Based on formation, mountains are of three main types:
- Fold Mountains
- Block Mountains
- Volcanic Mountains
- Resideual Mountains
1. Fold Mountains
- They have rugged relief and high conical peaks.
- Fold mountains are formed along convergent plate boundaries where compressional forces causes layers of rock to buckle up and fold.
- Most widespread and most important
- Example – Himalayas (Asia), Rockies (North America), Andes (South America) & Alps (Europe).
2. Block Mountains
- Formed when large mass of land are broken and displaced vertically, Block mountains are formed.
- Summits are almost level
- Example: Hunsruck (Rhineland, Germany), Vosges (Eastern France), Black forest of Rhineland
- Rift Valleys. Example – East African Rift valley, Death valley in california, Narmada river b/w Vindhya & Satpura
3. Volcanic Mountains
- These mountains are result of volcanic activity. Built up from material ejected from fissures in earth’s crust.
- Mount Fuji (Japan)
- Mount Mayon (Phillipines)
- Mount Merapi (Sumatra)
- Mount Agung (Bali)
- Mount Catopaxi (Ecuador)
4. Residual Mountains
- These mountains are formed by denudation. (processes that cause the wearing away of the Earth’s surface by moving water, by ice, by wind and by waves, leading to a reduction in elevation and in relief of landforms and of landscapes).
- General level of land is lowered by denudation, resistant areas remains & form residual mountains.
- Mount Manodnock (U.S.A)
- These mountains may also evolve from plateaus, which have been dissected by rivers into hills & valleys. Example Highlands of Scotland, Scandinavia, Deccan Plateau.
List of longest mountain chains on Earth
- Andes – South America
- Southern Great Escarpment – Africa
- Rocky Mountains – North America
Featured Image – Photo by Andreas Gäbler