Archaeological Site of Gilund in Rajsamand
Gilund is an archaeological site in Rajsamand district of Rajasthan. There are three major rivers in the area which include the Kothari, Banas, and Berach. Excavation carried out at the site during 1959-60 by B.B.Lal revealed two mounds labelled as ‘eastern’ and ‘western’ mounds. The site is part of Ahar-Banas chalcolithic culture.
Gilund is one of five ancient sites excavated in the Ahar-Banas Complex. Four others are Ahar, Ojiyana, Marmi, and Balathal. It is the largest site among the 111 reported sites in the Ahar-Banas Complex. The site is located in the Banas Basin, in the middle of the Mewar Plain.
Features of Ahar-Banas Culture at Gilund:
- Gilund was occupied from approximately 3000-1700 BCE. These years of occupation can be divided into two Periods:
- Early Ahar-Banas 3000-2000 BCE.
- Late Ahar-Banas 2000-1700 BCE
- Period I is chalcolithic in character on account of the presence of a few microliths along with copper.
- All through the period the residential houses are made of mud brick, the walls being plastered with mud. Within the houses are noticed circular clay-lined ovens and open mouthed chulhas.
- The characteristic Pottery of Period I is Black-and-Red Ware, painted over with linear and curvilinear designs in a creamish-white pigment, other wares include plain and painted black, burnished grey and red wares.
- Among the Teracotta figurines particularly noteworthy are the bull figurines with a prominent hump and long horns.
- Period II of Gilund seems to have begun about the middle of the 1st millennium B.C., as indicated by the presence of bowls and dishes of grey ware.
- In the successive strata have been found Sunga and Kushana bowls in red ware, sprinklers in the Red Polished Ware, bowls in kaolin ware and knife-edged bowls in red ware, indicating that this occupation continued up to the end of the 1st millennium A.D.