Folk Songs of Rajasthan
Rajasthani folk music is a beautiful treat and an eclectic way to witness the various colourful aspects of the state. The folk songs of Rajasthan are generally sung on the occasion of the festivals, family rituals and public festivities. These songs reflect local customs, superstitions and traditions. It is through the folk songs expressions like sorrow, joy and reverence can be felt.
Rajasthan has a rich tradition of folk songs. The hereditary castes of Bard such as Bhats, Charans, Langas, Bhopas, Manganiyars, etc. have transmitted to posterity a wealth of folklores, legends and history.
What are Folk Songs ?
The term folk song is an extension of folklore which is unofficial traditional form of expressing culture. Folk songs are the songs which are originated in the traditional popular culture.
Characteristics of folk songs:
- They are transmitted through oral traditions.
- Often related to rich and glorious past of the region or culture.
- They commemorate historical and personal events.
- They are old and traditional.
- It is a form of creativity distinguished by its spontaneous performance.
- They are simple.
Popular themes of folk songs of Rajasthan:
- Separation from lover
- Anticipatory fears of love and war
- Some of the folk songs are addressed to the birds and animals.
Wedding Related Folk Songs of Rajasthan
- Parnet :
- Song sung at the time of marriage.
- Name derived from the word ‘Parinay’.
- Bana- Bani :
- Songs based on the bride and groom.
- Olyu :
- Song sung by the bride’s side family at the time of departure.
- Kajaliyo :
- Kajal is an important part of makeup.
- Played during marriage while sister in law (Bhabhi) laying kajal in the eyes of the bridegroom.
- Pawna :
- When newly married son-in-law arrives at his in-laws house, women sing this song while serving food.
- Jalo/Jalal :
- Sung by the females of the bride side at the time of marriage procession.
- Seethne :
- They are abusive funny songs sung by women.
- Moriya :
- It is a love song which shows the restlessness of a woman whose marriage has been fixed.
- Chirmi :
- This is an emotional song which depicts the mental agony and grief of a girl who is married at an early age and now waiting for her father and brother.
- Bindola :
- Sung before marriage by the groom’s relatives
- Ghodi :
- Sung at the occasion of official departure of the groom on the horseback with baraat procession.
Separation (Virah) Related Folk Songs of Rajasthan
- Kaga :
- Song sung by a woman to call her husband from abroad
- Panihari :
- Songs sung by the ladies while going to fetch water from the well.
- It narrates loyalty of women towards their husbands.
- Indoni :
- Same as Panihari
- Indoni is round cheek made of cotton, munj and coconut, which is used to carry water pot on head.
- Lawani :
- Lawani means calling someone.
- It is sung by female to call her lover.
- It is also sung in Alwar region as devotional song to Bhartrihari.
- Kurjan :
- Emotional song which narrates how a woman sends her feelings to the lover through a letter with the help of Kurjan bird (nightingale).
- Mainly sung in Marwar region in rainy season.
- Hichki :
- Sung while remembering lover.
- Famous in Alwar- Mewat region.
- Sunwatiya :
- Emotional song shows the grief of a Bhil woman, who is sending message to her husband who has gone to other state for work.
- Mainly sung in Mewar region.
- Peepali :
- Emotional song through which wife persuades her husband not to desert her for trading outside the state.
- Famous in Marwar region.
Regional Folk Songs of Rajasthan
- Bechhudo :
- Famous song in Hadauti region.
- A woman is dying from scorpion bite.
- She is persuades her husband to remarry after her death
- Ghudla :
- Sung by the girls in the Marwar region on the occasion of Holi.
- Moomal :
- Ornamental folk song of Jaisalmer region in which the beauty of Moomal (princess of Lodrava) is described.
- Ex. – Mhaari barsaane ri Moomal.
- Gorband :
- Gorband is an ornament of camel’s neck.
- Famous folk song which describes the process of preparing a decorative string for camel.
- Ex. – Mhaaro gorband nakhralo .
- Dhola- Maru :
- Romantic love story of Dhola and Maru (Marwan) famous in Marwar region.
- This song is particularly famous in Sirohi region (sung by the Dhadhi community).
- Kangasiyo :
- Kangasiyo means comb.
- It is an ornamental song.
- Sung in western Rajasthan.
- Hamseedo :
- Sung by male and females of Bhil community.
- Famous in Mewar region.
- Languriya :
- Devotional songs sung by devotees of Kaila Devi (Karauli).
- Ghoomar :
- Songs sung while performing Ghoomar dance.
- Communities who took it as a profession – Dholi , Miraasi , Langa , Dhaadi, Kalaavant, Bhaat , Raav, Jogi ,Kaamad, Vairaagi , Gandharva, Bhopas, Raana , Kaalbelia.
- Songs by these communities – Maand, Des, Sorath, Maaru, Paraj, Kalingada, Jogiya, Aasawari, Bilawal, Peelu, Khamaaj.
- Famous Maand singer – Padma Shree Allah Jilai Bai sang “Padharo maahre desh.
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