India ranks at 131 Spot in Human Development Index
India has ranked at 131 position in the Human Development Index, released by United Nations Development Program (UNDP) as part of the Human Development Report 2020 (HDR 2020). India slipped two ranks from 2019, where it ranked 129 in HDR 2019. The HDR 2020 is based on data collected in 2019.
This is the 30th edition of the report, which ranks the world’s countries by their human development, instead of using growth in GDP as the sole measure of development.
Human Development Index
The Human Development Report, ranks countries based on Human Development Index (HDI) values. The index is based on the human development approach, developed by Mahbub ul Haq. HDI is geometric mean of normalised indices of three dimensions, which are:
- A long and healthy life: based on Life expectancy at birth
- Being knowledgeable: based on Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling
- Have a decent standard of living: based on per capita Gross National Income (GNI)
The maximum possible value of HDI is 1 and countries are ranked on score received.
The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). The IHDI takes into account not only the average achievements of a country in health, education, and income, but also how those achievements are distributed among its population by “discounting” each dimension’s average value according to its level of inequality.
For the first time, the UNDP has introduced a new metric to reflect the impact caused by each country’s per-capita carbon emissions and its material footprint.
The Planetary pressures-adjusted Human Development Index (PHDI) is an experimental index that adjusts the Human Development Index (HDI) for planetary pressures. PHDI measures the amount of fossil fuels, metals and other resources used to make the goods and services it consumes.
Human Development Report 2020
Since, 1990, the Human Development Report (HDR) is released by United Nations Development Program (UNDP) annually.
- Norway (0.957) topped the index, followed by Ireland, Switzerland, Hong Kong and Iceland.
- Norway, which tops the HDI, falls 15 places in the PHDI, leaving Ireland at the top of the table.
- Australia falls 72 places in the ranking, while the United States and Canada would fall 45 and 40 places respectively.
- China would drop 16 places from its current ranking of 85.
- However, India would move up eight places in the ranking.
HDI 2020 – India
- India has been positioned at 131 out of 189 countries and territories
- India’s HDI value for 2019 is 0.645
- Life expectancy of Indians at birth in 2019 was 69.7
- Mean years of schooling in India are 6.5 years and Expected years of schooling in India in 2019 stands at 12.2 years.
- India’s gross national income per capita fell to USD 6,681 in 2019 from USD 6,829 in 2018 on purchasing power parity (PPP) basis.
Although this year’s report covers 2019 only, and does not account for the impact of COVID, it projected that in 2020, global HDI would fall below for the first time in the three decades since the Index was introduced.