India: Cave Sites
- 13th -15th – Buddhist
- Walls though are plastered with clay and covered with bright colored paintings.
- Ajivika monks -261 BC
- Pupun River + Pahlgu River
- monolithic granite cliff during the reign of Ashoka
- 4 caves here , 3 at Nagarjuni Hills
- mentioned in “Mahabharatha” under name “Gorathgiri”
- Caves: Lomas Rishi, Sudama, Visva Zopri, Karan Chaupar
- Nagarjuni Hills – 230 BC
- Ajivika Monks
- By son of Ashoka – Dasaratha
- Caves: Gopi, Mirz Mandi, Vedathika Kubha
- Raisen District inside Ratapani WS
- Upper Paleolithic: linear representations, in green and dark red, of huge figures of animals, such as bisons and boar beside stick like human figures.
- Mesolithic: Smaller size, animal+ human+ weapons
- Chalcolithic: Reveal the association, contact, and mutual exchange of requirements of the cave dwellers of this area with the agricultural communities of the Malwa plains.
- Early Historic: schematic and decorative style and are painted mainly in red, white and rarely green depicting riders, religious symbols, tunic-like dresses, and the scripts of different periods
- Medieval: geometric, linear and more schematic, paintings of Brahmanical gods like Ganesh and Natraja appear
- Popular: Zoo Rock”, depicts elephants, sambar, bison and deer(Meso)
- Raw material source: Barkheda
- 9 rock-cut monuments, – southern slopes of the Vindhyas in Bagh town of Dhar district in MP
- 4th – 6th CE
- Out of 9, 5 survive – all viharas
- Sandstone rock, near stream Baghani
- Murals- executed in Tempera
- Cave 4: rang mahal – includes painting of Bodhisattva Padmapani, Mushroom paintings
- Dono confuse with (Bhaja-maharshtra)
Udayagiri Caves- Vidisha MP
- Chandragupta II
- Located at Sarguja CG
- Reach through natural tunnel – elephant can pass wide –
- Roof – human figures, fish and elephants.
- There are two layers of paintings in it. The Original paintings are of expert artists but the upper layer has been done by incompetent artists
- Also has the first documented messages of love in the world – written in Brahmi Script.
- Nearby has Sita Bengra Cave – ancient Theatre (may be oldest)
- Located inside Kanger Valley NP –CG -Jagdalpur
- Known for Stalactite & Stalagmite formations
- Other similar Caves: Kailash Gufa, Dandak Caves
Udayagiri and Khandagiri near Bhubaneswar
- Udaigiri -18 Caves, Khandagiri – 15
- Carved by Jain monks during the reign of King Kharavela, belong to earliest Jain rock-cut temples
- Contains Hathigumpha inscription
- Kharavela, king of Kalinga (circa 209 – after 170 BC)
- consists of 17 lines of deep incised Brahmi script
Ravana Chayya- Sitabinji
- circa 4 – 6 c. AD, painting circa 7th c. AD
- 5th -8th AD – 5- Hindu, 2 -Buddhism
- Elephanta Island –Thane Creek
- solid basalt
- The great Cave – Shiva
- Sculpture: Trimurti in madapa
- Flanked by culptural groups called Ardhanarisvara on its left and Gangadhara on Right
- Also has Stupa –made of bricks + 2 buddhist caves
- Inside Sanjay Gandhi NP
- Buddhist – 1st BC -9th AD
- 109 Caves
- Cave3:Large Chaitya – adorned with mithunas– love pairs characteristic for the art of Kushan period
- Depiction of Avalokitesvara from Kanheri is especially famed – in Cave 41this Bodhisattva is shown with eleven heads. This weird sculpture symbolically shows that 10 Bodhisattva heads lead to the final one – Buddha head thus symbolising gradual ascent to enlightement.
- numerous inscriptions – 51 legible and 26 epigraphs – Brahmi Script
- One inscription is significant historically as it tells about the marriage of Satavahana ruler Vashishtiputra Satakarni with the daughter of ruler Rudradaman I.
- 2BC – Buddhism
- 22 Caves – 200 BC
- Buddhist – Cahitya, Viaharas, & Rock-Cut Stupa
- valley of Indrayani River
- Jhanjeri Creek
- 1st century BC – 3rd century(Hinayana) AD, 6th – 7th c. AD (Mahayana)
- 26 rock-cut caves and 11 rock-cut cisterns
- 3rd – 1st century BC
Pandav Leni Caves:
- Initially Jain, later Buddhism
- 1st century BC – 3rd century AD, 8th – 12th century AD
- Located midway – Trirashmi Hill
- Sculptures of Jain Thirthankaras – Vrishabhdeo, Veer Manibhadraji and Ambikadevi.
Pital Kora Caves
- 250 BC -4th AD
Junnar: Pune, Maharshtra
- Trade center In 1st AD – this town was located on a trade route leading from Satavahana capital Paithan to the rich ports at Arabian Sea
- Sivaji Birthplace
- Rock Cut Temples around Junnar:
- North: Lenyadri Caves
- West: Tuljalena Caves
- South: Shivneri Caves
- South-East: Manmod
Tuljabai Hill Caves:
- 11 – Caves
- Buddhist monks (viharas) with unusual round shrine – chaitya.
- 1-3rd AD
- Cave 3: Hindu goddess Tulja.
- 50 rock-cut Buddhist monasteries of Hinayana school
- 1-3rd AD
- Also called as Ganesh Lena
- 40 Rock-Cut Caves
- 1-3rd AD
- Later, 1 cave Buddhist — > Hindu, Ganesh
- 2 Large Chaitya+1 small Chaitya rest viahars
Buddhist, Jain, Godess Ambika
Ravana Phadi Caves – Aihole
- Hindu- Shiva
- 550 AD- Chalukya
- Vishnu in his Varaha incarnation. On his arm is sitting goddess-Earth – his wife Bhūmī. Ceiling of this chamber has three large circles carved with Vishnu and Garuda, a lotus and Indra on his mount. Beams are carved with flying apsaras.
- Early Chalukya dynasty, Pulakesi I –est. capital Vatapi now Badami
- Ravine badami- artificial lake Agastya tirtha reservoir
- Hindu, Jain
- 4 Cave temples
- 1st Shiva: Shiva Parvati, Natraja
- 2nd Vishnu: Trivikrama – with one foot on Earth and another – directed to the north, Varaha, Krishna
- 3rd Vishnu: mural of Brahma there is a lotus medallion, standing Vishnu, Vishnu with a serpent, Vishnu as Narasimha, Varaha, Harihara and Trivikrama avatars
- 4th Jaina: Tirthankara Parshavnatha with a serpent at his feet, culpture of Jain saint Mahavira in seated pose (often mistaken for Buddha) and standing Gomatesvara with creepers twisted around his legs.
- Simple exterior but their interiors – Ornate finishing
- Also has Inscriptions – in Kannada writing and in Kannada and Sanskrit languages
- 1 particular
- 700 AD
- 10 lines in Kannada writing, both in Kannada and Sanskrit languages.
- About Kappe Arahatta, local saint and heroe
UNDAVALLI CAVES, near Vijayawada
- Vishnukundina kings – 420 – 620 CE
- Initially Buddhist later converted to Hindus
- 4 Storied caves
- Ground floor- Monastery like
- 2nd floor: a huge, 5 m long statue of Lord Vishnu in his Padmanabha aspect shown in reclining posture.
- Three shrines – trikūta.
- 1st c. BC – Eladipattam, 7th – 10th c. AD – Arivar-Koil
- Eladipattam served as a site of very severe penance – kayotsarga(meditation in standing posture until salvation) and sallekhana (fasting until death).
- Arivar-Koil – Frescos – made in Pandyan period – 9th century AD.
7th -8th AD
Murugan Temple in Thiruparankundram.
Malayadipatti – Vishnu Temple
- 113 BC
- Vidisha, near Sanchi Stupa
- By Heliodorus, a Greek ambassador of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas to the court of the Shunga king Bhagabhadra.
- Two Inscipritions:
- The first inscription describes in Brahmi script the situation of Heliodorus and his relationship to the Shunga Empire and the Indo-Greek Kingdom.
- Second inscription describes in more detail the spiritual content of the faith supported by Heliodorus: