Sociology is the study of human society and social behaviour. Though Sociology does not have a long history it does have a long past, for thousands of years men have reflected upon societies in which they lived. In the writings of Plato, Aristotle, Manu, Kautilya, Confucius, Cicero and others we find major attempts to deal methodically with the nature of Society Law, Religion, Philosophy, etc. Plato’s Republic, Aristotle’s Politics, Kautilya’s Arthashastra, Confucius Analets, Cicero’s ‘ On Justice’ are some of the ancient sources of social thought.
However, sociology as an independent science came to be established only in the 19th century due to the efforts of the French Philosopher Auguste Comte (1798-1857). Comte invented the term Sociology and was the first man to delineate the subject-matter of Sociology from all the other sciences. The discipline started as the ´science of society´, however with time, sociology has moved on to more reflexive attempts to understand how society works.
Relevance of Sociology:
- The Improved understanding of a given set of social circumstances gives us all a better chance of controlling them.
- Sociology provides means of increasing our cultural sensitivities, allowing policies to be based on awareness of divergent cultural values.
- It helps in investigation of consequences of particular policies and programs.
- Perhaps most important, it provides self-enlightenment offering groups and individuals an increased opportunity to alter conditions of their own lives.
Sociology for RAS Mains
1. Sociological Thought in India
2. Social Values
3. Caste, Class & Occupation.
5. Varna, Ashram, Purusharth and Sanskar Vyavastha.
7. Tribal community of Rajasthan: Bhil, Mina (Meena) and Garasia
8. Issues and Problems of Society.
- India (General)
Practise Questions on Sociology
Other Resources to Study
NCERT Books (Class XI & XII)
- Class XI : Introduction toSociology: Download PDF
- Class XI : Understanding Society: Download PDF
- Class XII : Indian Society: Download PDF
- Class XII : Social Change and Development in India: Download PDF
- India Society: Tribal, Rural and Urban (473 KB)
- Caste System in India (384 KB)
- Major Social Problems