Bodies in India are of multiple types, however in general day-to-day articles and news we come across three major types of bodies:
- Constitutional Bodies
- Statutory Bodies
- Executive Bodies
- Derive their Authority from Constitution of India.
- They are mentioned specifically in Constitution of India and cannot be destroyed/changed without change in Constitution. Hence, Changes in them require Constitutional amendment.
- They have dedicated articles in Constitution w.r.t them.
- Consequently, they are most important bodies like CAG (Article 148), UPSC (Artcile 315-323), Finance Commission, Election Commission etc.
- They are also referred to as Non-Constitutional bodies as they do not find specific mention in the Constitution of India.
- However, they are also very relevant and have been created by passing an ACT of Parliament.
- By RTI act Provisions –Information Commission etc or National Human Right Commission based on Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993.
- These bodies also come under Non-Constitutional bodies, as they also do not find any mention in the Constitution of India.
- Further they are also referred to as Non-Statutory bodies as these bodies have been specifically formed by Government decision, without passing any act of Parliament.
- Example Now dissolved-Planning Commission of India.
One should understand that difference between: Constitutional/ Statutory/ Executive is based source of their origin i.e. Constitution/ Act of Parliament/ Government Order respectively.
Now you may also come across terms like judicial/ Quasi-judicial bodies. They are parameters that define nature and function of bodies.
- Example Courts in India
- Main aim is justice and for that it relies on specific rules/law of the land.
- Follows specific process and needs advocates etc.
- Can go for all the problems
- Composed of judges only.
- Their Aim is also justice but their field is limited.
- Example: human right commission to look after human right violations.
- They include not only judges but experts from the field also.
- You can go them if the matter is from their field only.
- They do-not have specific rules example you do not need advocate/lawyerand can personally appeal to them.
- Other example is Finance Commission, a constitutional body is also quasi-judicial body in matters related to summoning & enforcing attendance and requisitioning any public record from any court of office.
|Constitutional Bodies||Statutory Bodies||Executive Bodies|
|Central Vigilance Commission (CVC)||Niti Aayog|
|Union Public Service Commission||Central Information Commission|
|State Public Service Commission||State Information Commission|
|Inter-State Council||National Human Rights Commission|
|Attorney General and Solicitor of India||National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission|
|Advocate General of State|
|Election Commission of India|
|National Commission for SC’s|
|National Commission for ST’s|
|Special officer for Linguistic Minorities|