Feminization of Agriculture

Feminization of Agriculture

The recent discussion about the changing character of rural India is interesting. As per the Economic Survey Report 2017-18, tabled in the Parliament by Shri Arun Jaitley, there is ‘Feminisation’ of Agriculture’ with increasing number of women in multiple roles as cultivators, entrepreneurs, and labourers. However, this is not necessarily connected to women’s social and economic empowerment. As per the census report of 2011, out of the total women workforce Continue Reading

Varna, Ashram, Purusharth and Sanskar Vyavastha

Sociology for RAS Mains GS Paper 1

The Hindu social system is structured by the  underlying code of religion. This code is reflected through the basic principle of Varna- Ashrama-Dharma. While Varna deals with the division of society, Ashrama deals with the nature of training and living in four stages of life. Together they propound a system referred to as varna ashrama – vyavastha. Theory of Purusharth Purushartha is a Sanskrit word meaning the “object of human pursuit” or “goals Continue Reading

G S Ghurye on Caste in India

Sociology for RAS Mains GS Paper 1

G S Ghurye ‘s understanding of Caste in India can be considered as historical, indological as well as comparative. In his book “Caste and race in India” he agrees with Sir Herbert Risley that “Caste is a product of race that came to India with along with aryans“. According to him caste originated from race and occupation stabilised it. Ghurye explains caste in India based on six distinctive characteristics: Segmental Continue Reading

Social Values

Sociology for RAS Mains GS Paper 1

The term ‘value’ occupies a predominant place in the subject of sociology. Social values form an integral aspect of the culture of the society with each culture having a distinctive value system.  Values provide stability to social order and bring legitimacy to rules that govern specific activities within the society. Definition of Values: In simple sense, values refer to intangible qualities or beliefs accepted and endorsed by a given society. Continue Reading

Sanskritization

Sanskritization Srinivas

In 1950’s, Prof M.N Srinivas introduced the term sanskritization to Indian Sociology. He introduced the notion of Sanskritisation to explain the process of cultural mobility in India, in his book ‘Religion and Society among the Coorgs of South India’. During his study of Coorgs in Karnataka, Srinivas found that lower castes in order to raise their position in the caste hierarchy adopted some customs and practices of the Brahmins and Continue Reading