Rulers of Rajasthan: Mewar

Mewar History: Rulers (1326 -1947)

  • Rana Hammir (1326-64)
    • Progenitor (Shuruwat karne wala) of the Sisodia clan
    • Built the Annapoorna Mata temple, located in the Chittorgarh Fort
    • Alauddin Khilji defeated Rana Ratan Singh (Padmini ne Jaauhar kiya) and transferred administration of new territories ( including chitter) to Maldeo, ruler of Jalore.
    • Maldeo , married his widowed daughter Songari with Rana Hammir.
    • Hammir organized overthrow of Maldeo and established Mewar again in 1326.
  • Khaitsi or Khetra Singh (1364-82)
    • Son of Rana Hammir
    • Conquered back, Mandalgarh, Ajmer, Mandsore & area of Chappan.
    • Obtained victory over Sultan of Delhi at Bakrole.
    • The Kumbalgarh inscription says that “he captured Zafar Khan.- Sultan of Gujarat.
  • Rana Lakha (1382- 1421)
    • Defeated the imperial army of Delhi at Badnor
    • Had two Sons – Elder – Rana Choonda – who took oath not to claim throne of mewar – in the exchange of his father’s marriage to Rani Hansa Bai.
    • In compensation – his symbol Lance (Bhala) was superadded to autograph of prince in all grants to vassals. Hence, Lance of Saloombra still precedes monogram of Rana.
    • In line with promise, Rana Mokul (Son from Hansa Bai) succeeded throne.
  • Rana Mokul/Mokal Singh (1421-1433)
    • After Rana Lakha, as Rana Mokul was minor, Rana Choonda started taking care of administration.
    • But Rani Hansa bai, did not like and asked Rana choonda to leave. He left.
    • Rani seek help of father Ranmal of Marwar but later understood intentions of Ranmal.
    • Rani called back Choonda, who came in and rescued Mokul Singh.
    • Had 3 sons = Rana Kumbha + 2 & daughter Lal Bae.
  • Rana Kumbha (1433-68)
    • In 1433, defeated Sultan of Malwa, Mahmud Khilji, in Battle of Mandalgarh and Banas.
    • Erected Vijay Stambh (victory tower) – 37 meter/9 floors.
    • Erected 32 Forts in defense of Mewar. Including highest fort in Rajasthan (MRL 1075m) – Kumbhalgarh
    • Additionally he also costructed, the Ranakpur Trailokya-dipaka Jain temple with its adornments, the Kumbhasvami and Adivarsha temples of Chittor and the Shantinatha Jain temple.
    • Credited with writing the Samgita-raja, the Rasika-priya commentary on the Gitagovinda, the Sudaprabandha, and the Kamaraja-ratisara.
    • Sangita-ratnakara and Sangita-krama-dipaka (two books on music by Rana Kumbha.
    • During his reign, scholar Atri and his son Mahesa wrote the prashasti (edict) of the Chittor Kirti-stambha and Kahana Vyasa wrote the Ekalinga-mahamatya.
    • Rana kumbha successfully defended Mewar and expanded his territory at a time when he was surrounded by enemies like Mahmud Khilji of Malwa, Qutbuddin of Gujrat, Shams Khan of Nagaur and Rao Jodha of Marwar.
  • Rana Udai Singh I ( 1468-73)
    • A In a patricide, Rana Kumbha was killed by his son Udaysimha (Udai Singh I) or Ooda Singh
    • Defeated by his brother – Raemul in battles of Jawar, Darimpur and Pangarh
  • Rana Raemul (1473- 1508)
    • Other Son – Raemul finally succeeded Khumbha
    • By marrying Sringardevi (daughter of Rao Jodha), Raimal ended the conflict with the Rathores.
  • Rana Sanga ( Sangram Singh ) (1508-1528)
    • Battle of Gagron: defeated Sultan of Malwa
    • Battles of Idgar: 3 battles: fought between Bhar Mal & Rae Mal two princes of Idar, Rana Sanga supported Rae mal.
    • Battle of Khatoli & Dholpur: Sanga defeated Ibrahim Lodhi
    • Gujarat Invasion: laid seize at Ahmadnagar (Himmatnagar) – defeated Sultan.
    • Battle of Khanwa: was defeated by Babur
  • Ratan Singh II (1528–1531)
  • Vikramaditya Singh (1531–1536)
    • During his reign, Sultan of Gujarat Bahadur Shah sacked Chittor in 1534, Udai Singh was sent to Bundi for safety.
    • Rana Sanga’s wife Karnavati –send Rakhi to Humayun.
    • But Humayun late – 2nd Jauhar of Chittor
  • Vanvir Singh (1536–1540)
    • Vanvir killed Vikramaditya Singh, and was about to kill Udai Singh II, when Panna Dhai, rescued him with sacrifice of her won child.
  • Udai Singh II (1540–1572)
    • 1540, he was crowned in Kumbhalgarh by the nobles of Mewar.
    • Maharana Pratap born in same year (9th May-1540)
    • In 1562, he gave refuge to Baz Bahadur of Malwa. Using this as a pretext, Akbar attacked Mewar in October 1563.
    • Udai Singh retired to Gogunda.
    • Rao Jaimal & Patta – fought with Valor – even Akbar impressed – statute erected at Fatehpur Sikri
    • Jauhar- 3rd Jauhar of chitter (1568)
    • Founded city of Udaipur.
  • Maharana Pratap(9th May 1540- 29 Jan 1597)
    • Pratap Jayanti, is celebrated annually on the 3rd day of the Jyestha Shukla.
    • 1576-Akbar deputed Man Singh I against Maharana Pratap – 18 June 1576- Battle of Haldighati – Pratap defeated.
    • Slowly, Pratap recovered many of the territories , made Chavand
    • Tod, the famous British antiquarian, gave Pratap the title of ‘Leonidas of Rajasthan’.
  • Amar Singh I (1597-1620)
    • Born 1559, same year as Udaipur foundation laid by Udai Singh.
    • Amar Singh fought with Jehangir
    • Battle of Dewar – showed great bravery – killed commander sultan.
    • Finally, made peace with Jehangir – treaty negotiated by Shah Jehan – Amar Singh was relieved of making in person presence to Mughal court.
  • Karan Singh II (1620–1628)
  • Jagat Singh I (1628–1652)
    • Made jag Mandir in Lake Pichola
  • Raj Singh I (1652–1680)
    • Made Rajsamand
  • Jai Singh (1680–1698)
    • Treaty with Aurangzeb
    • Made Lake Jaisamand
  • Amar Singh II (1698–1710)
  • Sangram Singh II (1710–1734)
  • Jagat Singh II (1734–1751)
  • Pratap Singh II (1751–1754)
  • Raj Singh II (1754–1762)
  • Ari Singh II (1762–1772)
  • Hamir Singh II (1772–1778)
  • Bhim Singh (1778–1828)
  • Jawan Singh (1828–1838)
  • Shambhu Singh (1861–1874)
    • Adopted son of Maharana Swarup Singh
    • He was the first to set up a school for girls and thus promoted opportunities of education for everyone.
    • He enforced special measures to curb the Sati pratha
  • Sajjan Singh (1874–1884)
    • Cousin – was adopted by Maharana Shambhu Singh.
  • Fateh Singh (1884–1930)
    • Adopted by Sajjan Singh
    • Built Cannuaght dam on Lake Dewali – now named FatehSagar
    • Built Fateh Prakash Palace in Chittorgarh fort
    • Only Maharaja to not attend the Delhi Durbar, both of 1903 and 1911.
  • Bhupal Singh (1930–1947)
    • On 28 July 1921, following some social unrest in Mewar, Fateh Singh was formally deposed – Bhupal Singh made ruler.
    • On 18 April 1948 he became Rajpramukh of Rajasthan and from 1 April 1949 his title was raised to Maha Rajpramukh.

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