Rulers of Marwar: Jodhpur

 

After the destruction of the Gahadavala kingdom, and the migration of the Gahadwalas to Rajputana, a prince of the Kannauj kings founded the Rathore dynasty of Marwar in 1226. Rao Siyaji, grand son of Jai Chandra, of Kannauj, came to marwar during his pilgrimage to dwarka. His Son, Rao Asthan conquered Pali, and Khed (in western Marwar), but ultimately got killed in battle by Sultan Jalauddin Khilji of Delhi. Rao Chanda/Chundarji, 10th in succession from Siyaji, finally wrested control of Marwar from the Gurjara Pratiharas – and established rule of Rathores in Marwar.

Rathore Rulers of Jodhpur

  • Rao Chanda/Chundarji secured & found kingdom of Marwar.
  • Rao Chanda, is killed in battle by Salim Shah of Multan. The king’s son, Kanha, subsequently has to fight to retain his throne when his brother Rao Ranmal. Ultimately, Ranmal succeeds.
  • Rao Jodha(1438 – 1489)
    • Son of Ranmal becomes first fully independent king of Jodhpur,
    • 1459- Laid foundation of modern city of Jodhpur
    • Reconquers Mandore from the Sisodiyas of Mewar (Rana Kumbha).
    • Began Construction of Mehrangarh fort.
    • Jodha’s son Rao Beeka – founded the kingdom of Bikaner
  • Rao Satal (1489-1492)
  • Rao Suja (1492 1515)
  • Rao Biram Singh (1515-1515)
  • Son of Bagha
  • Rao Ganga (1515-1532)
  • Rao Maldeo (1532-1562)
    • Maldeo refused to ally with either the Sur Empire or the Mughal Empire after Humayun regained control of north India in 1555.
    • Muslim historian Ferishta calls him as the “most Potent Ruler of Hindustan”
    • In 1543, Battle of Sammel: with Sher Shah Suri – Maldeo lost.
    • In 1562, lost Merta and Ajmer to Emperor Akbar, and forced to send two of his sons as hostages to the Imperial Court
  • Rao Chandra Sen (1562-1565)
    • 3rd Son but Maldeo named him successor.
    • Elder brother Udai Singh, sided with Akbar – Battle of Merta 1562 – Lost his territories in wars with the Mughals.
    • He was defeated but refused to form any alliance with Mughals.
    • He continued his struggle until his death in 1581 at Pali, after which, Marwar submitted to Mughal rule in 1583
  • Raja Udai Singh (Mota Raja) (1583-1595)
    • Restored by the Mughals with the title ‘Raja’ as a vassal
  • Sawai Raja Suraj-Mal(1595-1619)
  • Maharaja Gaj Singh I (1619-1638)
    • To be the first to take the title ‘Maharaja’ by himself
  • Maharaja Jaswant Singh (1638-1678)
    • Shah Jehan made him ruler, in line with his wishes.
    • Author of “Siddhant-bodh”, “Anand Vilas” and “Bhasa-bhusan”
    • Aurangzeb revolted against Shah Jehan, Jaswant Singh sided with Shah Jehan – Battle of Dharmatpur. Aurangzeb won – named place of Victory- Fatehabad
    • His son Prithvi Raj Singh – was murdered by Aurangzeb through poisonous robe.
  • Raja Rai Singh (1659-1659)
    • Son of Raja Amar Singh
  • Maharaja Ajit Singh (1679-1724)
    • When Jaswant Singh died, he left no male heir. But 2 of his wives were pregnant. AJit was born later.
    • However, Aurangzeb appointed Indra Singh as ruler.
    • Durgadas went to Auranzeb to recognize Ajit singh as successor but Aurangzeb kept condition of converting Ajit to muslim. Durga das disagreed.
    • For 20 years, Marwar remained under direct Mughal rule, Durga das continued stuggle.
    • When Aurangzeb died 1707, Durga das seized occasion, Ajit Singh regained Jodhpur.
  • Maharaja Abhai Singh (1724-1749)
    • Battle of Ahmedabad against Sarbaland – won
    • Battle of Gangwan against Amber.
  • Maharaja Ram Singh  (1749-1751)-(1753-1772)
    • Was defeated in battle by his uncle Bakht Singh at Luniawas, 27 November 1750 and was expelled from Jodhpur and sought refuge in Jaipur.
  • Maharaja Bakht Singh (1751-1752)
    • Brother of Abhai Singh- defeated his son Ram Singh.
  • Maharaja Vijay Singh – 1752-1753) – (1772-1793)
  • Maharaja Bhim Singh (1793 1803)
  • Maharaja Man Singh (1803 1843)
  • Maharaja Sir Takht Singh (1843-1873)
    • Not in the direct line
    • Formerly Regent of Ahmednagar.
    • Assists the British in India during the Indian Mutiny of 1857.     
  • Maharaja Sir Jaswant Singh II(1873-1895)
    • Kaisar-i-Hind
  • Maharaja Sir Sardar Singh –  1895   1911
  • Maharaja Sir Sumair Singh –  1911 1918
  • Maharaja Sir Umaid Singh (1918-1947)
  • Maharaja Sir Hanwant Singh (1947-47)