Revolutionary Movement in India Independence

REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT:

MAHARSHTRA

  • Vasudeva Balwant Phalke was the first person who established a secret society in Maharashtra.
  • In 1896-97 A.D. Damodar Hari and Balkrishna Hari known as the Chapekar brothers formed the Vyayam Mandal.  Feburary 1897, 3rd global Plague epidemic, Special Plague committee –chairman W.C. Rand – force stripping & examination – Tilak – Quotes in Kesari (Marathi) : Bhagvad Gita says execution against atrocities is not sin.  Following this, on 22 June 1897, Commissioner Rand and another British officer, Ayerst were shot and killed by the Chapekar brothersand their other associates. Tilak: 18 months imprisonment.
  • Tilak cameout and adopted slogan ” Swaraj is my Birthright and I shall have it”, coined by Joseph Baptista. 
  • 1904: Abhinav Bharat, was established byD. Savarkar.
    • Member: P.N. Bapat, went to Paris to learn the art of bomb making
    • In 1909 a District Magistrate of Nasik was shot dead by Anant Lakshman Kanhere
  • 1908, Prafulla Chaki+ Khudram bose – threw bomb carriage – thought Kingsford
  • Rash Bihari Bose+ Sachin Sanyal – unsuccessful attempt – kill Viceory – Hardinge
  • Assassination of Curzon-Whylie in London by Madan Lal Dhingra
  • Veer Bhai Kotwal: during Quit India Movement formed group of underground mercenaries called “Kotwal Dasta”, a parallel government in the Karjat taluka of Thane district.

BENGAL:

  • Jugantar: was initially formed by an inner circle of the Kolkata Anushilan Samiti
    • Barin Ghosh was the main leader
    • Hemchandra Kanungo – training in Paris- after returning – set up bomb factory.
    • Bagha Jatin was one of the top leaders in Jugantar.
    • During WWI: Indo-German Plot:
    • C.R Das death: Two fractions
      • Headed by Subhash C. Bose – Yugantar backed
      • Headed by J.M Sengupta – Anushilan backed
  • Anushilan Samiti: Established by Pramathanath Mitra in 1902.
  • Jan1924, Charles Tegrat, commissioner of Police assassination attempt by Gopinath Saha – actually killed Day.
  • Chittagong group led by Surya Sen – Indian Republican Army
  • Ganesh Gosh – Police Armory
  • Lokenath Paul – Auxiliary Force Armory
  • 1930 – Rev. Activities revived -1931-32 momentum carried.
  • Women participation:
    • Pritilata Waddedar – died on raid
    • Kapana Dutta – Surya Sen ke sath
    • Santi Gosh + Suniti Choudhury – killed DM
    • Bina Das- point blank – Governor
    • Bengal Volunteers: Subhas Chandra Bose organized a group of volunteers during the 1928 Kolkata session of Indian National Congress.

ASSAM

  • Ambikagiri Raychaudhury – voluntary association called Seva Sangha – wrote drama banidni bharat.
  • In the Surma valley, on the other hand, the extremist movement gained greater ground. Bipin Chandra Pal frequently visited the valley and his fiery speeches stirred up the dormant elements there into action.

UP:

  • Hindustan Republican Association: set up by Ramprasad Bismil, Jogesh Chatterjeaa and Sachindranath Sanyal
    • Kakori Robbery: 9 August 1925. Hanged: Asfaqulla Khan, Ramprasad Bismil, Roshan Singh, Rajendra lahiri. Azam remained at large
  • Hindustan Socilaist Republican Association: Ferozshah Kotla, Delhi 10 Spetmber 1928.
    • Sanuders assassinate@ Lahore : Lahore CC : Bhagat Singh, AZAD and Rajguru
    • 8 April 1929 Bhagat Singh & B.K. Dutt – CLA bomb
    • 23 March 1931 – Bhagat, Sukhdev, Rajguru Hanged

SOUTH INDIA:

  • On 17 June 1911, the Collector of Tirunelveli, Robert Ashe, was killed by R. Vanchi Aiyer,

ABROAD:

  • Shyamji Krishnaverma, V.D Savarkar & Har dayal – in London – INDIA HOUSE
  • Madam Cama& Ajit Singh in Europe
  • The “Berlin committee for Indian independence” was established in 1915 by Virendra Nath Chattopadhya, including Bhupendra Nath Dutt & Lala Hardayal under “Zimmerman plan” with the full backing of German foreign office.