- Rajasthani is name given to group of dialects spoken in Rajasthan.
- Recognized as a distinct literary language by Sahitya Academy (National Academy of letters) & University Grants Commission (UGC).
- Script is Devanagri.
- 10 vowels and 31 consonants.
- Two genders
- Fund of folk literature consisting of ballads, songs, proverbs, folk tales and panegyrics.
- In 2003 the Rajasthan Legislative Assembly – passed a unanimous resolution to insert recognition of Rajasthani into the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. Present Status: Not included.
- Reasons for less propagation: lack of comprehensive reference grammar and latest dictionary prepared based on a thorough linguistic survey of Rajasthan.
History & Evolution of Rajasthani language:
- Rajasthani is an Indo-Aryan language having its roots in Vedic Sanskrit and Sauraseni Prakrit.
- Suaraseni Prakrit – initially language of Mathura region – spread westwards (towards modern Gujarat & Saurashtra) and developed modification and called Gurjara Apabhramsa or Gurjari
- From Gurjari developed Maru-Gurjar, a common language of Rajasthan & Gujarat. It started taking definite linguistic pattern from 1050 AD.
- From 1450, Rajasthani & Gujarati, started to get differentiate and in subsequent centuries distinct Rajasthani language (Maru-Bhasha) (Dingal) developed.
- In eastern region Dingal mixed with Braj-bhasha of Mathura and formed
- While Dingal was used for composing songs for war & ceremonies, Pingal was used for composing poems of love & devotional nature.
- The use of Dingle & Pingal continued freely for 4 centuries (15th-19th) but from 1818 Rajasthani language declined.
- Why? Development of Khadi boli (both language & literature)
Dialects of Rajasthani:
- Marwari – most spoken – Marwar – Western rajasthan
- Mewari – Mewar region – Udaipur –
- Dhundhari – 2nd most spoken -Dhundhar- Jaipur region
- Mewati – Mewat Region – North east of Jaipur – Alwar region
- Harauti – Bundi, Kota, Tonk – region
- Malvi – parts of Jhalawar/Kota – near to Malwa of MP
- Bagri – Northeastern Churu
- Nimadi – north Nimach and Bhansawar
- Bhili – by bhils – Dungarpur
- Bagria – Banswara
- Other Rajasthani Dialects are Dhatki, Godwari, Gujari, Gurgula, Goaria and Lambadi.
Sahitya Academy Winners for Rajasthani:
- 2015 Gawaad (Novel) Madhu Acharya ‘Ashawadi’
- 2014 Sundar Nain Sudha Rampal Singh Rajpurohit
- 1975 Pagfero (Poetry) Mani Madhukar
- 1974 Batan Ri Phulwari Vol. X (Folk-tales) Vijaydan Detha
Prominent Linguist of Rajasthani:
- Kan Singh Parihar: English, Sanskrit, Hindi, Marwari, Rajasthani, 1940
- Anvita Abbi: Bagri, 1993
- Christopher Shackle: Bagri and Saraiki, 1976
- David Magier: Marwari, 1983
- George Abraham Grierson : Almost all the dialects of Rajasthani, 1920
- George Macalister: Dhundhari and Shekhawati, 1892
- Gopal Parihar: Bagri, 2004–present
- John D. Smith: Rajasthani, 1970–present
- J. C. Sharma: Gade lohar, Bagri or Bhili, Gojri, 1970–present
- Kali Charan Bahl: Rajasthani, 1971–1989
- K. C. Agrawal: Shekhawati, 1964
- L. P. Tessitori: Rajasthani and Marwari, 1914–16
- Lakhan Gusain: all the dialects of Rajasthani, 1990–present
- Liudmila Khokhlova: Rajasthani and Marwari, 1990–present
- Narottam Das Swami: Rajasthani and Marwari, 1960
- Peter E. Hook: Rajasthani and Marwari, 1986
- Ram Karan Asopa: Rajasthani and Marwari, 1890–1920
- Sita Ram Lalas: Rajasthani language, 1950–1970
- Saubhagya Singh Shekhawat Rajasthani, : Rajasthani Shabd-Kosh part I Sanshodhan Parivardhan, 1945–present
- Suniti Kumar Chatterjee: Rajasthani, 1948–49
- W.S. Allen: Harauti and Rajasthani, 1955–60
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