Rajasthani Language

Rajasthani Language:

  • Rajasthani is name given to group of dialects spoken in Rajasthan.
  • Recognized as a distinct literary language by Sahitya Academy (National Academy of letters) & University Grants Commission (UGC).
  • Script is Devanagri.
  • 10 vowels and 31 consonants.
  • Two genders
  • Fund of folk literature consisting of ballads, songs, proverbs, folk tales and panegyrics.
  • In 2003 the Rajasthan Legislative Assembly – passed a unanimous resolution to insert recognition of Rajasthani into the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. Present Status: Not included.
  • Reasons for less propagation: lack of comprehensive reference grammar and latest dictionary prepared based on a thorough linguistic survey of Rajasthan.

History & Evolution of Rajasthani language:

  • Rajasthani is an Indo-Aryan language having its roots in Vedic Sanskrit and Sauraseni Prakrit.
  • Suaraseni Prakrit – initially language of Mathura region – spread westwards (towards modern Gujarat & Saurashtra) and developed modification and called Gurjara Apabhramsa or Gurjari
  • From Gurjari developed Maru-Gurjar, a common language of Rajasthan & Gujarat. It started taking definite linguistic pattern from 1050 AD.
  • From 1450, Rajasthani & Gujarati, started to get differentiate and in subsequent centuries distinct Rajasthani language (Maru-Bhasha) (Dingal) developed.
  • In eastern region Dingal mixed with Braj-bhasha of Mathura and formed
  • While Dingal was used for composing songs for war & ceremonies, Pingal was used for composing poems of love & devotional nature.
  • The use of Dingle & Pingal continued freely for 4 centuries (15th-19th) but from 1818 Rajasthani language declined.
  • Why? Development of Khadi boli (both language & literature)

Dialects of Rajasthani:

  • Marwari – most spoken – Marwar – Western rajasthan
  • Mewari – Mewar region – Udaipur –
  • Dhundhari – 2nd most spoken -Dhundhar- Jaipur region
  • Mewati – Mewat Region – North east of Jaipur – Alwar region
  • Harauti – Bundi, Kota, Tonk – region
  • Malvi – parts of Jhalawar/Kota – near to Malwa of MP
  • Bagri – Northeastern Churu
  • Nimadi – north Nimach and Bhansawar
  • Bhili – by bhils – Dungarpur
  • Bagria – Banswara
  • Other Rajasthani Dialects are Dhatki, Godwari, Gujari, Gurgula, Goaria and Lambadi.

Sahitya Academy Winners for Rajasthani:

  • 2015 Gawaad (Novel)                                                 Madhu Acharya ‘Ashawadi’
  • 2014 Sundar Nain Sudha                                           Rampal Singh Rajpurohit
  • 1975 Pagfero (Poetry)                                                Mani Madhukar
  • 1974 Batan Ri Phulwari Vol. X (Folk-tales)          Vijaydan Detha

Prominent Linguist of Rajasthani:

  • Kan Singh Parihar: English, Sanskrit, Hindi, Marwari, Rajasthani, 1940
  • Anvita Abbi: Bagri, 1993
  • Christopher Shackle: Bagri and Saraiki, 1976
  • David Magier: Marwari, 1983
  • George Abraham Grierson : Almost all the dialects of Rajasthani, 1920
  • George Macalister: Dhundhari and Shekhawati, 1892
  • Gopal Parihar: Bagri, 2004–present
  • John D. Smith: Rajasthani, 1970–present
  • J. C. Sharma: Gade lohar, Bagri or Bhili, Gojri, 1970–present
  • Kali Charan Bahl: Rajasthani, 1971–1989
  • K. C. Agrawal: Shekhawati, 1964
  • L. P. Tessitori: Rajasthani and Marwari, 1914–16
  • Lakhan Gusain: all the dialects of Rajasthani, 1990–present
  • Liudmila Khokhlova: Rajasthani and Marwari, 1990–present
  • Narottam Das Swami: Rajasthani and Marwari, 1960
  • Peter E. Hook: Rajasthani and Marwari, 1986
  • Ram Karan Asopa: Rajasthani and Marwari, 1890–1920
  • Sita Ram Lalas: Rajasthani language, 1950–1970
  • Saubhagya Singh Shekhawat Rajasthani, : Rajasthani Shabd-Kosh part I Sanshodhan Parivardhan, 1945–present
  • Suniti Kumar Chatterjee: Rajasthani, 1948–49
  • W.S. Allen: Harauti and Rajasthani, 1955–60

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