Mines & Minerals of Rajasthan

Mines

Rajasthan Mines & Minerals: The Basics

  • Rajasthan has deposits of 79 different types of major and minor minerals. Out of these, 57 minerals are being currently mined.
  • Rajasthan is leading producer of:
    • Zinc
    • Feldspar
    • Wollastonite
    • Silver
    • Rock Phospate
    • Gypsum
    • Red Ochre
  • RSMML:
    • Public Sector Mining carried on by – RSMML – Rajasthan State Mines & Minerals Corporation.
    • Engaged in mining & marketing of Industrial Minerals.
  • 70% of Boone-China tableware is produced in Rajasthan
  • Rajasthan is leading producer of both Cement grade & Steel Grade Limestone production in India

Now we shall start with discussion of each Mineral in detail. First, we shall discuss important minerals and then other minerals alphabetically.

URANIUM MINERAL in Rajasthan:

  • In Rajasthan Uranium mines have been discovered at:
  • Sikar – Rohil, Khandela, Ghateswar
  • Kho-Dariba in Alwar
  • Umra
  • Ajmer, Dungarpur, Banswara

LEAD – ZINC – SILVER MINERALS in Rajasthan

  • Rajasthan Rank: 1
  • Largest Deposit in India: Rampura- Agucha ( Bhilwara district)
  • Deposits in Rajasthan:
    • Rampura-Agucha (Bhilwara district)
    • Rajpura-Dariba and Sindesar Khurd(High Silver Content) (Rajsamand district)
    • Zawar (Udaipur),
    • Sawar and Kayar-Ghugra (Ajmer district)
    • Basantgarh and Deri (Sirohi district)
  • Production: Hindustan Zinc Limited ( Smelters in Chanderia, Dariba & Debari )
  • Uses:
    • Lead – Lead-acid batteries, coloring agent in stained glasses, Fishing Sinkers, Roofing
    • Lead – In electronics its use as soldering agent Shielding from X-ray in laboratories
    • Remember Lead-pencil Doesnot have lead. (UPSC Prelims)

COPPER MINERAL in Rajasthan:

  • History Trivia:
    • On the basis of excavations at Ganeshwar, located east of Khetri in north Rajasthan, ascribe the earliest Indian copper mining to Indus valley civilization (3000-1500 BC)
    • Copper metallurgy has been mentioned in Arthashastra & Ain-i-Akbari
    • Copper Ore: Cuprite, Chalcopyrite
  • Second: Rank of Rajasthan in Copper Production in India.
  • Most important Copper reserves in India:
    • Malanjkhand, Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh (makes MP, 1st in Production)
  • Deposits of Copper in Rajasthan:
    • Jhunjhunu – Madan Kudan-Kolihan- Banawas-Chandmari-Dholamala, Akwali and Muradpur-Pacheri
    • Bhilwara – Devpura-Banera
    • Sirohi – Basantgarh
    • Alwar – Kho-Dariba
    • Udaipur – Anjani, Bedawal, Chari-Manpura
  • Production by – Hindustan Copper Limited (HCL) under Ministry of mines
  • Uses of Copper:
    • Ductility, high conductivity of heat and electricity – electrical wires
    • Copper+Tin = Bronze (Statute, Indus Valley, Mohenjaodaro dancing girl)
    • Copper+zinc = Brass (More hard)
    • Stainless Steel: Iron + Nickel + Copper + Chromite +….
    • Morel Metal: Copper + Nickel
    • Duralumin: Copper + Aluminium
    • 3rd most abundant mineral in human body (serves as a cofactor for enzymes involved in hemoglobin and collagen formation and is involved in incorporating iron into the structure of hemoglobin. It strengthens blood vessels, bones and nerves. )

MINERAL TUNGSTEN in Rajasthan:

  • Ore: wolframite & scheelite.
  • One: Rank of Rajasthan in Tungsten Production in India
  • Deposits of Tungsten in Rajasthan:
    • Degana (Nagaur) – Best in Country
    • Sirohi – Balda , Uduwaria
    • Ajmer- Pali – Alniawas-Sewariya, Pipaliya, Motyia
  • Uses of Tungsten:
    • Bulb Filament
    • High-speed alloy
    • Hard-Steel alloys- machine tools, high speed cutting tools, special steel for defense purposes.

MINERAL MANGANESE in Rajasthan:

  • Ore: Pyrolusite
  • Karnataka: Largest deposit in India
  • Rajasthan very less
  • Largest Production: Odisha – Bonai-Keonjhar Belt
  • Deposits of Manganese in Rajasthan
    • Banswara
  • Uses of Manganese:
    • Raw material for manufacturing steel alloys
    • Manufacturing of bleaching powder, insecticides, paints, and batteries.

MINERAL IRON-ORE in Rajasthan:

  • Ore: Found in Dharwad and Cuddapah rock systems of the peninsular India.
  • Ore Quality-wise ranking: Haematite,> Magnetite, >Limonite & > Siderite
  • Largest Deposit in India: Barabil-Koira Valley in Odisha
  • Deposits of Iron-Ore in Rajasthan
    • Jaipur – Morija-banol – Neemla-Raisalo
    • Bhilwara – Pur banera belt
    • Udaipur – Natha ki Pal, Thur Hunder
    • Sikar – Dabla
    • Dausa -Lalsot

MINERAL LIMESTONE in Rajasthan:

  • Deposits in Rajasthan:
  • Limestone occurs in almost all the districts of the
    State, but important deposits are located in

    • Ajmer: Sheopura, lulwa & Kesarpura
    • Bundi: lakheri and Stur
    • Chittaurgarh: Nimbhahera, Parsoli
    • Jodhpur: Bilara & Basa
    • Nagaur: Mundwa & Gotan
    • Pali: Deoli Hulan
    • Sirohi:Abu road
    • Jaisalmer: Khuiala and Bandha
  • Uses:
    • One of the most important industrial mineral
    • Required in the manufacture of lime, cement.
    • Chemicals soda-ash, caustic-soda, bleaching powder, calcium carbide
    • Fertilizer – Ammonium Nitrate
    • As flux in iron and steel, ferro-alloy and other metallurgical industries.

MINERAL-GOLD in Rajasthan:

Deposits in Rajasthan: Banswara – Bhukhia-Jagpura-Delwarabelt

BERYLLIUM in Rajasthan:

  • Ore: Beryl (Silicate of Beryllium and aluminum)
  • Rajasthan : Principal state of Production
  • Deposits of Beryllium in Rajasthan
  • Ajmer: Lohagarh, Gujarwara
  • Udaipur: Acheiwas
  • Bhilwara: Titoli, Deora Guda
  • Nagaur
  • Use:
  • As moderator in Nuclear Power Reactors.
  • Green transparent variety of beryl is emerald which is a precious stone

Note: In Jan 2016, illegal mining of Beryllium in Ajmer & Nagaur came in NEWS.

BISMUTH in Rajasthan:

  • Deposits of Bismuth in Rajasthan:
    • Narda, Neem-ka-Thana tahsil, Sikar district
  • Use:
    • Medical Preparations
    • Radar Equipments
    • To make alloys required in production Atomic  Bomb

MICA in Rajasthan:

  • Deposits in Rajasthan:
    • Beawer-Ajmer belt: Dhand
    • Bhilwara belt: Bagor-Lesva
    • Dungarpur-Banswara belt: Chota-Padri
    • Tonk belt: Dholi & Bhojapura
    • Kaunthal belt:falls in Udaipur district. Chief mines  Bhagwanpura and Ran
  • Use: Mica is used extensively in electrical and electronic industry due to its excellent dielectric strength and insulating properties

Now we shall discuss the other minerals found in Rajasthan alphabetically.

Asbestos in Rajasthan: 
  • Rajasthan accounts for about 96% of the country’s total production of asbestos, whereas Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, the other producing States contribute the remaining 4%.
  • Deposits in Rajasthan:
  • Mainly located in Southern parts of Rajasthan
    • Ajmer: Kanwali in Kota Reserve forest area, Arjanpura, Nai-Khurd
    • Alwar: palpur, Dhalawar
    • Bhilwara: Barana
    • Dungarpur:  Dewal, Mundwara
    • Sirohi: Bori-ki-Bhuj
    • Udaipur: Kagdar-ki-Pal,Rakhabdeo,Jogi-ka-Gudha,Antalia,Bhauva
    • Pali: Kanotia-Ramgarh

Baryte in Rajasthan:

  • World Baryte Reserves -India ranks 3rd.
  • World Baryte Production: India ranks 2nd.
  • World’s largest single Baryte deposit: Mangampet in Andhara Pradesh
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Alwar: Rajgarh belt,
    • Bharatpur: Hathori, Karwan and Ghatri blocks.
    • Bhilwara: Barliyas deposit,
    • Bundi: Umar deposit
    • Pali: Punagarh hill
    • Sikar: Kharagbingur
    • Jalore: Karara
    • Udaipur: Delwara-Nathdwara belt
  • Uses
  • Vital to petroleum industry which consumes more than 80% of the world’s baryte production.

Bauxite in Rajasthan:

  • Deposits in Rajasthan
  • Very insignificant in Rajasthan
    • Kota: Baselio, Majola, Sherol-khera
  • Uses:
    • Extraction for Aluminum
    • Refractory & Chemical Industries

China Clay in Rajasthan: 

  • Rajasthan contributes 50% of share of Production of china clay in India.
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Bikaner: Mudh, Chandi, Kotri-Marh-Gura area
    • Barmer: Bolia, Gunga
    • Nagaur: Khajwana
    • Sawai Madhopur: Raesena , Basu
    • Sikar: Buchara
    • Chittor: Eral & Sawa
  • Uses:
    • China clay is used in Industries like ceramic, refractory, textile, paper, rubber and pesticides.

Dolomite in Rajasthan:

  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Ajmer: Kajla Kabra
    • Alwar: Jhiri, Dhani & Nizra
    • Bhilwara: Kosithan
    • Jaipur
    • Jaisalmer,
    • Jhunjhunun,
    • Nagaur- Jodhpur- Pali
    • Sawai Madhopur
    • Udaipur:
  • Used as flux material in the iron and steel industry

Feldspar in Rajasthan:

  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Ajmer: Pink variety from Tatarpur & Khairthal
    • Alwar,
    • Jaipur: Dudwa near Neem-ka-Thana
    • Pali: Kalalia, Khinwal
    • Sikar: Dudawas and Haridas-ka-Bas
  • Uses:
    • Chiefly used in the ceramic and glass industries and in insulator making.

Fluorite in Rajasthan:

  • Deposit of Flourite Rajasthan 2nd and Gujarat 1st
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Dungarpur: Mando-ki-Pal-Kahila belt
    • Jalore: Karara (Karda):
    • Jhunjhunu: Chokri Chapoli:
    • Sikar: Salwarai
    • Sirohi: Balda
  • Uses:
    • Finest-grade of fluorite is used for enameling iron, manufacture of opaque and opalescent glasses and for the production of hydrofluoric acid.
    • Transparent fluorite is used in the manufacture of lenses.

Fuller’s Earth in Rajasthan:

  • Fuller’s earth,is also known as Multani Mitti, in general hindi.
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Barmer: Kapurdi & Alamsaria
    • Bikaner: Palana, Kesardasar and Marh
    • Jaisalmer: Manda & Mandai

Graphite in Rajasthan: 

  • Graphite is also called as Black lead
  • Orissa is leading producer with 77% & Rajasthan share is less than 1%.
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Ajmer, Alwar, Banswara and Jodhpur
  • Uses
    • Crucible Industry – electric furnaces

GYPSUM in Rajasthan:

  • Rajasthan: 90% of total production in India
  • Deposits of Gypsum in Rajasthan:
    • Jaisalmer: Sri Mohan Garrh
    • Barmer: Utarlai & Kavas, Chittar-Ka-Par and Thob
    • Ganganagar:  Siramsar, Mahala, Pallu,
    • Nagaur:  Bhadwasi, Dhakoria, Kharat, Mandava,
    • Bikaner: Jamsar (largest deposit in State)
    • Churu
    • Pali
  • Used in making:
    • Portland Cement
    • Plaster of Paris
    • Paints
    • Fertilizer

Ilmenite in Rajasthan:

  • India main deposits of ilmenite located along coast of Kerala.
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Ajmer, Nagaur, Pali, Jodhpur and Sikar
    • Very less quantity
  • Uses:
    • It is used for extraction of Titanium Metal
    • Manufacture of Pigments

Kyanite in Rajasthan:

  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Ajmer: Chainpura and Madaoria
    • Bhilwara: Bari Harnoi & Pur
    • Dungarpur: Chotti Padri & Sagwada
    • Jaipur: Near Tunga
    • Pali
    • Udaipur: Kishangarh and Sansera
  • Uses
    • In electronics, electrical insulators and abrasives.

Magnesite in Rajasthan:

  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Sarupa-Chhaja in Ajmer district
    • Bhimana in Pali district
    • Lewa-ka-Gurha in Udaipur District
  • Uses:
  • Chief Source of Magnesium
    • Can withstand high temprature and used in manufacture of refractory bricks used in steel-making furnaces, in the manufacture of some special types of cement (sorel cement) and in glass and rayon industry.

Nickel in Rajasthan:

  • Nickel is recovered as a by-product.
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Found along with the copper ores in the Khetri Copper Belt in Jhunjhunu
    • The serpentinite rocks at Rakhabdev-Kherwara area south of udaipur.
  • Uses
    • Production of Stainless-steel
    • Catalyst in making alloys and coins and in the storage of batteries.
    • Nickel-compounds are widely used in electroplating, chemical and ceramic industry.

Ochre in Rajasthan:

  • Deposit in Rajasthan
    • Bikaner, Chittaurgarh, Jaisalmer, Jhunjhunun, Jodhpur, Nagaur and Udaipur
  • Used:
    • Directly as paint material or to give colour, body and opacity to paint, cement, linoleum, rubber, glasses,
      enamels, plastics etc.

Potash in Rajasthan:

  • Deposits in Rajasthan:
    • Bikaner, Hanseran, Arjunsar, Gharsisar, Jaitpur, Satipura, Bharusari and Lakhasar.
  • Uses:
    • One of the key elements in Fertilizers

Pyrite-Pyrrhotite – Sulphur in Rajasthan:

  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Sikar – Saladipura
  • Uses:
    • Manufacture of sulphuric acid which is used mainly in the manufacture of superphosphate fertilizer and also in several other chemical industries.

Rock Phosphate in Rajasthan:

  • Rock phosphate, popularly known as phosphorite
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Udaipur: Jhamar Kotra (largest in the country),Maton, Kanpur, Karbaria-ka-Gurha and Dakan Kotra.
    • Banswara: Sallopat and Ram-ka-Munna
    • Chittorgarh: Jaoda deposit:
    • Jaisalmer: Birmania, fatehgarh, Rupsi & Nibh Dungar
    • Jaipur: Achraul
  • Uses:
    • Essential ingredient in the manufacture of superphosphate, a fertilizer,

Silica Sand in Rajasthan:

  • Deposit in Rajasthan
    • Jaipur-Dausa: Banskhch hill near Jhir
    • Bundi-Kota-Sawai Mahopur Districts: Manjora, Mohanpur, Patori and Guneshri.
    • Tonk: Bher & Siwad
    • Jaisalmer: Lathi
    • Bikaner: Marh
    • Jodhpur:  Bhakarion-ki-Dhani
  • Uses
    • Making glass
    • Acidic remi-mass

Steatite in Rajasthan:

  • Steatite, talc and soapstone are the three terms used in trade for a hydrous silicate of magnesium.
  • A purer variety of compact and massive talc is steatite.
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Jaipur-Dausa Districts: Dogetha-Jharna & Geejgarh
    • Bhilwara: Gheruia & Chainpura
    • Sawai madhopur: Dhaota & Dwain
    • Udaipur-Dungarpur: Rishabhadev

Tin in Rajasthan:

  • Ore: Cassiterite
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
  • Bhilwara District:  Paroli & Johna Sili
  • Uses:
    • Tin oxide is used as polishing material for marble and granite
    • Alloy
    • Chemical Industry

Vermiculite in Rajasthan:

  • Deposits in Rajasthan: Ajmer – Gudas
  • Uses:
    • When Vermicultie is heated, its volume increases more than 12 times
    • The mineral is used where some extreme lightness and low-heat conductivity are required.
    • Insulators

Wollastonite in Rajasthan:

  • Rajasthan is the only Wollastonite producing state in India
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
  • Pali-Sirohi: Khera-Uparla, Belka Pahar near Khila in Sirohi district.
  • Ajmer:  GolaAlipura
  • Uses: It is used in the ceramic, enamel, glass, matches, paints, paper, plastics and plywood industries; in the preparation of artware, ceiling tiles, floor tiles, insulators, as an extender of short-fibred asbestos or as a replacement for non-fibrous materials.
Source: mapsofindia
Source: mapsofindia

References:

  1. http://www.dnaindia.com/money/report-hindustan-zinc-to-invest-rs-8000-crore-in-next-3-5-years-to-expand-mining-operations-2163882
  2. http://www.dmg-raj.org/metalic-minerals.html