Mines & Minerals of Rajasthan

Mines

Rajasthan Mines & Minerals: The Basics

  • Rajasthan has deposits of 79 different types of major and minor minerals. Out of these, 57 minerals are being currently mined.
  • Rajasthan is leading producer of:
    • Zinc
    • Feldspar
    • Wollastonite
    • Silver
    • Rock Phospate
    • Gypsum
    • Red Ochre
  • RSMML:
    • Public Sector Mining carried on by – RSMML – Rajasthan State Mines & Minerals Corporation.
    • Engaged in mining & marketing of Industrial Minerals.
  • 70% of Boone-China tableware is produced in Rajasthan
  • Rajasthan is leading producer of both Cement grade & Steel Grade Limestone production in India

Now we shall start with discussion of each Mineral in detail. First, we shall discuss important minerals and then other minerals alphabetically.

URANIUM MINERAL:

  • In Rajasthan Uranium mines have been discovered at:
  • Sikar – Rohil, Khandela, Ghateswar
  • Kho-Dariba in Alwar
  • Umra
  • Ajmer, Dungarpur, Banswara

LEAD – ZINC – SILVER MINERALS

  • Rajasthan Rank: 1
  • Largest Deposit in India: Rampura- Agucha ( Bhilwara district)
  • Deposits in Rajasthan:
    • Rampura-Agucha (Bhilwara district)
    • Rajpura-Dariba and Sindesar Khurd(High Silver Content) (Rajsamand district)
    • Zawar (Udaipur),
    • Sawar and Kayar-Ghugra (Ajmer district)
    • Basantgarh and Deri (Sirohi district)
  • Production: Hindustan Zinc Limited ( Smelters in Chanderia, Dariba & Debari )
  • Uses:
    • Lead – Lead-acid batteries, coloring agent in stained glasses, Fishing Sinkers, Roofing
    • Lead – In electronics its use as soldering agent Shielding from X-ray in laboratories
    • Remember Lead-pencil Doesnot have lead. (UPSC Prelims)

COPPER MINERAL:

  • History Trivia:
    • On the basis of excavations at Ganeshwar, located east of Khetri in north Rajasthan, ascribe the earliest Indian copper mining to Indus valley civilization (3000-1500 BC)
    • Copper metallurgy has been mentioned in Arthashastra & Ain-i-Akbari
    • Copper Ore: Cuprite, Chalcopyrite
  • Second: Rank of Rajasthan in Copper Production in India.
  • Most important Copper reserves in India:
    • Malanjkhand, Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh (makes MP, 1st in Production)
  • Deposits of Copper in Rajasthan:
    • Jhunjhunu – Madan Kudan-Kolihan- Banawas-Chandmari-Dholamala, Akwali and Muradpur-Pacheri
    • Bhilwara – Devpura-Banera
    • Sirohi – Basantgarh
    • Alwar – Kho-Dariba
    • Udaipur – Anjani, Bedawal, Chari-Manpura
  • Production by – Hindustan Copper Limited (HCL) under Ministry of mines
  • Uses of Copper:
    • Ductility, high conductivity of heat and electricity – electrical wires
    • Copper+Tin = Bronze (Statute, Indus Valley, Mohenjaodaro dancing girl)
    • Copper+zinc = Brass (More hard)
    • Stainless Steel: Iron + Nickel + Copper + Chromite +….
    • Morel Metal: Copper + Nickel
    • Duralumin: Copper + Aluminium
    • 3rd most abundant mineral in human body (serves as a cofactor for enzymes involved in hemoglobin and collagen formation and is involved in incorporating iron into the structure of hemoglobin. It strengthens blood vessels, bones and nerves. )

MINERAL TUNGSTEN:

  • Ore: wolframite & scheelite.
  • One: Rank of Rajasthan in Tungsten Production in India
  • Deposits of Tungsten in Rajasthan:
    • Degana (Nagaur) – Best in Country
    • Sirohi – Balda , Uduwaria
    • Ajmer- Pali – Alniawas-Sewariya, Pipaliya, Motyia
  • Uses of Tungsten:
    • Bulb Filament
    • High-speed alloy
    • Hard-Steel alloys- machine tools, high speed cutting tools, special steel for defense purposes.

MINERAL MANGANESE:

  • Ore: Pyrolusite
  • Karnataka: Largest deposit in India
  • Rajasthan very less
  • Largest Production: Odisha – Bonai-Keonjhar Belt
  • Deposits of Manganese in Rajasthan
    • Banswara
  • Uses of Manganese:
    • Raw material for manufacturing steel alloys
    • Manufacturing of bleaching powder, insecticides, paints, and batteries.

MINERAL IRON-ORE:

  • Ore: Found in Dharwad and Cuddapah rock systems of the peninsular India.
  • Ore Quality-wise ranking: Haematite,> Magnetite, >Limonite & > Siderite
  • Largest Deposit in India: Barabil-Koira Valley in Odisha
  • Deposits of Iron-Ore in Rajasthan
    • Jaipur – Morija-banol – Neemla-Raisalo
    • Bhilwara – Pur banera belt
    • Udaipur – Natha ki Pal, Thur Hunder
    • Sikar – Dabla
    • Dausa -Lalsot

MINERAL LIMESTONE:

  • Deposits in Rajasthan:
  • Limestone occurs in almost all the districts of the
    State, but important deposits are located in

    • Ajmer: Sheopura, lulwa & Kesarpura
    • Bundi: lakheri and Stur
    • Chittaurgarh: Nimbhahera, Parsoli
    • Jodhpur: Bilara & Basa
    • Nagaur: Mundwa & Gotan
    • Pali: Deoli Hulan
    • Sirohi:Abu road
    • Jaisalmer: Khuiala and Bandha
  • Uses:
    • One of the most important industrial mineral
    • Required in the manufacture of lime, cement.
    • Chemicals soda-ash, caustic-soda, bleaching powder, calcium carbide
    • Fertilizer – Ammonium Nitrate
    • As flux in iron and steel, ferro-alloy and other metallurgical industries.

MINERAL-GOLD:

Deposits in Rajasthan: Banswara – Bhukhia-Jagpura-Delwarabelt

BERYLLIUM:

  • Ore: Beryl (Silicate of Beryllium and aluminum)
  • Rajasthan : Principal state of Production
  • Deposits of Beryllium in Rajasthan
  • Ajmer: Lohagarh, Gujarwara
  • Udaipur: Acheiwas
  • Bhilwara: Titoli, Deora Guda
  • Nagaur
  • Use:
  • As moderator in Nuclear Power Reactors.
  • Green transparent variety of beryl is emerald which is a precious stone

Note: In Jan 2016, illegal mining of Beryllium in Ajmer & Nagaur came in NEWS.

BISMUTH:

  • Deposits of Bismuth in Rajasthan:
    • Narda, Neem-ka-Thana tahsil, Sikar district
  • Use:
    • Medical Preparations
    • Radar Equipments
    • To make alloys required in production Atomic  Bomb

MICA:

  • Deposits in Rajasthan:
    • Beawer-Ajmer belt: Dhand
    • Bhilwara belt: Bagor-Lesva
    • Dungarpur-Banswara belt: Chota-Padri
    • Tonk belt: Dholi & Bhojapura
    • Kaunthal belt:falls in Udaipur district. Chief mines  Bhagwanpura and Ran
  • Use: Mica is used extensively in electrical and electronic industry due to its excellent dielectric strength and insulating properties

Now we shall discuss the other minerals found in Rajasthan alphabetically.

Asbestos 
  • Rajasthan accounts for about 96% of the country’s total production of asbestos, whereas Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, the other producing States contribute the remaining 4%.
  • Deposits in Rajasthan:
  • Mainly located in Southern parts of Rajasthan
    • Ajmer: Kanwali in Kota Reserve forest area, Arjanpura, Nai-Khurd
    • Alwar: palpur, Dhalawar
    • Bhilwara: Barana
    • Dungarpur:  Dewal, Mundwara
    • Sirohi: Bori-ki-Bhuj
    • Udaipur: Kagdar-ki-Pal,Rakhabdeo,Jogi-ka-Gudha,Antalia,Bhauva
    • Pali: Kanotia-Ramgarh

Baryte

  • World Baryte Reserves -India ranks 3rd.
  • World Baryte Production: India ranks 2nd.
  • World’s largest single Baryte deposit: Mangampet in Andhara Pradesh
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Alwar: Rajgarh belt,
    • Bharatpur: Hathori, Karwan and Ghatri blocks.
    • Bhilwara: Barliyas deposit,
    • Bundi: Umar deposit
    • Pali: Punagarh hill
    • Sikar: Kharagbingur
    • Jalore: Karara
    • Udaipur: Delwara-Nathdwara belt
  • Uses
  • Vital to petroleum industry which consumes more than 80% of the world’s baryte production.

Bauxite

  • Deposits in Rajasthan
  • Very insignificant in Rajasthan
    • Kota: Baselio, Majola, Sherol-khera
  • Uses:
    • Extraction for Aluminum
    • Refractory & Chemical Industries

China Clay 

  • Rajasthan contributes 50% of share of Production of china clay in India.
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Bikaner: Mudh, Chandi, Kotri-Marh-Gura area
    • Barmer: Bolia, Gunga
    • Nagaur: Khajwana
    • Sawai Madhopur: Raesena , Basu
    • Sikar: Buchara
    • Chittor: Eral & Sawa
  • Uses:
    • China clay is used in Industries like ceramic, refractory, textile, paper, rubber and pesticides.

Dolomite

  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Ajmer: Kajla Kabra
    • Alwar: Jhiri, Dhani & Nizra
    • Bhilwara: Kosithan
    • Jaipur
    • Jaisalmer,
    • Jhunjhunun,
    • Nagaur- Jodhpur- Pali
    • Sawai Madhopur
    • Udaipur:
  • Used as flux material in the iron and steel industry

Feldspar

  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Ajmer: Pink variety from Tatarpur & Khairthal
    • Alwar,
    • Jaipur: Dudwa near Neem-ka-Thana
    • Pali: Kalalia, Khinwal
    • Sikar: Dudawas and Haridas-ka-Bas
  • Uses:
    • Chiefly used in the ceramic and glass industries and in insulator making.

Fluorite

  • Deposit of Flourite Rajasthan 2nd and Gujarat 1st
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Dungarpur: Mando-ki-Pal-Kahila belt
    • Jalore: Karara (Karda):
    • Jhunjhunu: Chokri Chapoli:
    • Sikar: Salwarai
    • Sirohi: Balda
  • Uses:
    • Finest-grade of fluorite is used for enameling iron, manufacture of opaque and opalescent glasses and for the production of hydrofluoric acid.
    • Transparent fluorite is used in the manufacture of lenses.

Fuller’s Earth

  • Fuller’s earth,is also known as Multani Mitti, in general hindi.
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Barmer: Kapurdi & Alamsaria
    • Bikaner: Palana, Kesardasar and Marh
    • Jaisalmer: Manda & Mandai

Graphite 

  • Graphite is also called as Black lead
  • Orissa is leading producer with 77% & Rajasthan share is less than 1%.
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Ajmer, Alwar, Banswara and Jodhpur
  • Uses
    • Crucible Industry – electric furnaces

GYPSUM:

  • Rajasthan: 90% of total production in India
  • Deposits of Gypsum in Rajasthan:
    • Jaisalmer: Sri Mohan Garrh
    • Barmer: Utarlai & Kavas, Chittar-Ka-Par and Thob
    • Ganganagar:  Siramsar, Mahala, Pallu,
    • Nagaur:  Bhadwasi, Dhakoria, Kharat, Mandava,
    • Bikaner: Jamsar (largest deposit in State)
    • Churu
    • Pali
  • Used in making:
    • Portland Cement
    • Plaster of Paris
    • Paints
    • Fertilizer

Ilmenite

  • India main deposits of ilmenite located along coast of Kerala.
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Ajmer, Nagaur, Pali, Jodhpur and Sikar
    • Very less quantity
  • Uses:
    • It is used for extraction of Titanium Metal
    • Manufacture of Pigments

Kyanite

  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Ajmer: Chainpura and Madaoria
    • Bhilwara: Bari Harnoi & Pur
    • Dungarpur: Chotti Padri & Sagwada
    • Jaipur: Near Tunga
    • Pali
    • Udaipur: Kishangarh and Sansera
  • Uses
    • In electronics, electrical insulators and abrasives.

Magnesite

  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Sarupa-Chhaja in Ajmer district
    • Bhimana in Pali district
    • Lewa-ka-Gurha in Udaipur District
  • Uses:
  • Chief Source of Magnesium
    • Can withstand high temprature and used in manufacture of refractory bricks used in steel-making furnaces, in the manufacture of some special types of cement (sorel cement) and in glass and rayon industry.

Nickel

  • Nickel is recovered as a by-product.
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Found along with the copper ores in the Khetri Copper Belt in Jhunjhunu
    • The serpentinite rocks at Rakhabdev-Kherwara area south of udaipur.
  • Uses
    • Production of Stainless-steel
    • Catalyst in making alloys and coins and in the storage of batteries.
    • Nickel-compounds are widely used in electroplating, chemical and ceramic industry.

Ochre

  • Deposit in Rajasthan
    • Bikaner, Chittaurgarh, Jaisalmer, Jhunjhunun, Jodhpur, Nagaur and Udaipur
  • Used:
    • Directly as paint material or to give colour, body and opacity to paint, cement, linoleum, rubber, glasses,
      enamels, plastics etc.

Potash

  • Deposits in Rajasthan:
    • Bikaner, Hanseran, Arjunsar, Gharsisar, Jaitpur, Satipura, Bharusari and Lakhasar.
  • Uses:
    • One of the key elements in Fertilizers

Pyrite-Pyrrhotite – Sulphur

  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Sikar – Saladipura
  • Uses:
    • Manufacture of sulphuric acid which is used mainly in the manufacture of superphosphate fertilizer and also in several other chemical industries.

Rock Phosphate

  • Rock phosphate, popularly known as phosphorite
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Udaipur: Jhamar Kotra (largest in the country),Maton, Kanpur, Karbaria-ka-Gurha and Dakan Kotra.
    • Banswara: Sallopat and Ram-ka-Munna
    • Chittorgarh: Jaoda deposit:
    • Jaisalmer: Birmania, fatehgarh, Rupsi & Nibh Dungar
    • Jaipur: Achraul
  • Uses:
    • Essential ingredient in the manufacture of superphosphate, a fertilizer,

Silica Sand

  • Deposit in Rajasthan
    • Jaipur-Dausa: Banskhch hill near Jhir
    • Bundi-Kota-Sawai Mahopur Districts: Manjora, Mohanpur, Patori and Guneshri.
    • Tonk: Bher & Siwad
    • Jaisalmer: Lathi
    • Bikaner: Marh
    • Jodhpur:  Bhakarion-ki-Dhani
  • Uses
    • Making glass
    • Acidic remi-mass

Steatite

  • Steatite, talc and soapstone are the three terms used in trade for a hydrous silicate of magnesium.
  • A purer variety of compact and massive talc is steatite.
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
    • Jaipur-Dausa Districts: Dogetha-Jharna & Geejgarh
    • Bhilwara: Gheruia & Chainpura
    • Sawai madhopur: Dhaota & Dwain
    • Udaipur-Dungarpur: Rishabhadev

Tin:

  • Ore: Cassiterite
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
  • Bhilwara District:  Paroli & Johna Sili
  • Uses:
    • Tin oxide is used as polishing material for marble and granite
    • Alloy
    • Chemical Industry

Vermiculite

  • Deposits in Rajasthan: Ajmer – Gudas
  • Uses:
    • When Vermicultie is heated, its volume increases more than 12 times
    • The mineral is used where some extreme lightness and low-heat conductivity are required.
    • Insulators

Wollastonite

  • Rajasthan is the only Wollastonite producing state in India
  • Deposits in Rajasthan
  • Pali-Sirohi: Khera-Uparla, Belka Pahar near Khila in Sirohi district.
  • Ajmer:  GolaAlipura
  • Uses: It is used in the ceramic, enamel, glass, matches, paints, paper, plastics and plywood industries; in the preparation of artware, ceiling tiles, floor tiles, insulators, as an extender of short-fibred asbestos or as a replacement for non-fibrous materials.
Source: mapsofindia
Source: mapsofindia

References:

  1. http://www.dnaindia.com/money/report-hindustan-zinc-to-invest-rs-8000-crore-in-next-3-5-years-to-expand-mining-operations-2163882
  2. http://www.dmg-raj.org/metalic-minerals.html