Before taking first step ahead, first we need to understand difference between “History of Literature in Rajasthan” and “History of Rajasthani Literature”.
While both of them may seem alike but in actuality they are quite different. Now,
First “History of Literature in Rajasthan” means all the literature works that has been created within geographical boundary of Rajasthan from start of time till now. As a result, it includes Sanskrit, Prakrit, Rajasthani, Hindi and other Language works.
Now, Second “History of Rajasthani Literature” stands for all the literature work that has been done in Rajasthani Language and its dialects. Here its history means, all the literature works in Rajasthani Language from the time of Origin of Rajasthani Language till now.
To be more specific History of Literature in Rajasthan includes:
- Sanskrit & Prakrit Literature
- Rajasthani Literature
- Hindi Literature
While, Rajasthani Literature includes Literature composed in Rajasthani language and can be divided into following periods:
- 1. Early Period (1100-1450)
- 2. Medieval Period (1450-1850)
- 3. Modern Period (1850-)
Hence, Rajasthani Literature is actually part of History of Literature in Rajasthan. Now that difference is clear, we shall look into first aspect:
1. Sankrit & Prakrit Literature of Rajasthan:
The literature history of Rajasthan goes back to 1500 years and ancient astronomer and mathematician Brahmagupta belonged to Bhinmal (jalore) town composed Brahsfut Siddhanta.
- Poet Magha, who also belonged to Bhinmal and wrote Shishupal Vadh in 8th
- Hari Bhadra Suri of Cheetore wrote Samaraichcha katha
- Udhyotan Suri wrote Kuvalaya Mala partly in Prakrit & partly in Aprabransh in 779 A.D
- Sidha Rishi wrote Upmiti Bharva Prancha Katha
- Vigrah Raj Chauchan IV of Ajmer wrote drama named Harkaili
- Somdeva, poet of Court of Vigrah Raj, wrote drama Lahit Vigrah Raj
- Jayanak, Court poet of Prithviraj Chauchan III wrote Prthvi RMaaj Vijay
- Maharana Khumbha wrote treatise of Jai Deva’s Geet Govinda and a book on musicology – Sangeet Raj.
2. Rajasthani Literature
Rajasthani Literature dates back to the 11th century, with development of Maru-Gurjari as language in early 11th century. On basis of time Rajasthani Literature cane be divided into:
- 1 Early Period (1100-1450)
- 2 Medieval Period (1450-1850)
- 3 Modern Period (1850-1950)
And on basis of distinct forms Rajasthani Literature can be divided into:
- Rajasthani Jaina Literature
- Rajasthani Charan Literature
- Rajasthani Saint Literature
- Rajasthani Folk Literature
Now, we shall first discuss in detail, Rajasthani Literature division on basis of time.
B.1 The Early Period of Rajasthani Literature
- Till 1169, Rajasthani language was essentially oral and so significant literature works does not exist before 1169 AD. Hence, the early period of Rajasthan Literature begins from 11th Century and continues till 1450 AD.
- This early period was dominated by Jaina Scholars, Acharyas & Monks and important works include:
- Bharatvarsh war Bahubali Ghor written by Vijrasen Suri
- Bharateshwar Bhaubali raas authored by Shalibhadra Suri
- Jiyadarya Raas by Asig
- Padmavati Chaupai by Jinprabha Suri
- Stulibhadra Phag by Hemraj
- Gyan Manjari by Vijhana
- Non- Jaina works
- Prithviraj Raso by Chandbardai – 12th Century
- Achaldas Khichi ri Vachanika by Gadan Shivdas
- Visaldeo raas by Narpati Nath
- Ranmall Chanda by Shridhan
- The literature works belonging to early period are common heritage of Rajasthani and Old-Gujarati.
B.2 The Medieval Period of Rajasthani Literature
The medieval period of Rajasthani Literature starts from 1450 and continues till 1850. The period is considered as Golden age of Rajasthani Language and literature based on the amount and variety of text written.
- 1455 – Padmanabh wrote Kanhadade Prabandh – regarded as the link between Gujarati and separated Rajasthani. The work is considered as an encyclopedia of life in Rajasthan during those times.
- 1473 – Dhola Maru ra Doha was composed by Kallol.
- 1481- Bhandari Vyas – wrote Hammirayan
- 1568 – Buddhi Raso written by Jallah
- 17th Century – Khuman raso written by Dalpat
- 17th Century – Binhai raso written by Mahesdas
- Halan Jhalan ra Kundaliya written by Baraith Isardas.
B.3 The Modern Period of Rajasthani Literature
This includes literature works in Rajasthani after 1850. The main difficulty in surveying Rajasthani Literature is that a large number of literary works have remained unpublished.
- The traditional heroic poetry consisting of Kavya & Raso declined by end of 18th
- In middle of 19th century, Surya Mal Mishran of Bundi (also called as Bhushan of Rajasthan) attempted to revive heroic poetry and wrote Vansh Bhaskar & Veer Satsai.
- Another great poet of the same period was Ramnath Kaviya of Alwar who wrote Draupadi Vinaya & Pabuji ra Soratha.
- Another poet a champion dadupanthi scholar Swarup Das wrote Pandava Yashendu Chandrika.
- Maharaja Chatur Singh translated Geeta, Patanjali’s Yogasutra into Mewari language.
- Atyudhan Mahariya also wrote Veer Satsai
- Chandra Singh wrote Kah-Mukrani & the famous book – Badli in 1940.
- Meghraj Mukul composed poem Sainani.
3. Hindi Literature of Rajasthan:
The National movement gave new life to literature in Rajasthan and large number of poets and writers expressed fury of people against British rule. The poets also reprimanded Rajput rulers of their suicidal policies.
- Important writers of this period included Surya Mal Mishran, Girvardhan, Bhopaldan, Keshri Sibh Barhat,
This was Rajasthani literature based on periods of history. Now, we shall consider division of Rajasthani Literature based on Streams or types of authors.
Rajasthani Jaina Literature.
- The literature is related to Jaina Religion.
- Hemchandra Suri – Deshinaammala, Shabdanushasan
- Hrishivardhan Suri – Nal Damyanti Raas
- Hemratna Suri – Gora Badal ri Chaupayi
Rajasthani Charan Literature
- Lifestyle & Valor of Rajput era is represented beautifully by Charan literature.
- Badar Dhaadhi – wrote Veer Bhayan
- Chandbardayi – wrote Prithviraj Raso
- Nainsi wrote – Nainsiri Khyat
- Baankidas – Baankidas ri Khyat
- Dayaldas – Dayaldas ri Khyat
- Achaldas Khichi ri Vachanika by Gadan Shivdas
- In Poetry (Doha)
- Dhola maru ra Doha
- Sajjan ra Doha
- Prithviraj Rathore (Bikaner) wrote Valley Krishan Rukamani ri
- Surajmal Misrana (1815-68) – Bundi State Poet.
- Vansh Bhaskar: Ram Singh (Bundi)
- Vir Satsai:
- Balwant Vilas:
Rajasthani Saint Literature:
- Meera ki Padavali
- Daddu ki Vaani
- Narsingji ro maheero
- Ram Charan ji ki Vaani
Rajasthani Folk Literature:
- Shahpura in Bhilwara is famous
- Happening from life of Lok Devta like Pabuji, Dev Narayan ji, Ramdev ji etc are depicted in Faad.
- Padam Shri Lal Joshi ji from Bhilwara – gave international recognition to Fad