Livestock of Rajasthan

Livestock of Rajasthan: An Introduction:

Service Sector majorly drives economy of Rajasthan but agriculture and allied activities continues to be chief source of livelihood in rural region. 55% of total area of Rajasthan is desert and so livestock is the main source of livelihood. Other than providing source of livelihood, livestock also provides food security and insurance against poverty. Development of livestock sector has a significant beneficial impact in generating employment and reducing poverty in rural areas.

This Post includes description and details, regarding various animals found in Rajasthan. Our aim is to cover, in this single post, basic information and relevant details with regard to both ecologically and economically relevant animals of Rajasthan.

Livestock of Rajasthan: The Basics

  • What is Livestock?
    • Livestock are animals that are domesticated and raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber, and labor.
    • They include cattle, goats etc
    • The breeding, maintenance, and slaughter of these animals, known as animal husbandry
  • What is Mixed Farming?
    • Mixed farming is a farming system, which involves the growing of crops as well as the raising of livestock
  • What are the advantages of Mixed Farming?
    • Mixed Farming offers highest return on farm business, as the by-products of both farm and livestock are properly utilized.
    • It provides work throughout year.
    • Provides efficient utilization of land, labor, equipment and other resources.
    • Crop by-products such as bus, straw, fodder are used for feeding of livestock and in return they provide milk.
    • Manures available from livestock are useful in maintenance of soil fertility.
    • It helps in supplying all the food needs (food security) of the family members.
    • Intensive cultivation is possible.
    • Provides livelihood security in case of drought, floods.
    • Milk cattle’s provide draft animals for crop production and rural transport.
    • Mixed farming increases social status of the farmer.
  • Importance of Livestock in Economy of Rajasthan:
    • The State has about 11.27 per cent of the livestock of the country.
    • The State accounts for about 6.98 per cent of cattle,
    • 11.94 per cent of buffaloes,
    • 16.03 per cent of goats,
    • 13.95 per cent of sheep and
    • 81.50 per cent of camels of the country.
    • The State contributed 12 per cent of milk and 32 per cent of wool to the nation’s production in the year 2016-17.
    • Livestock provide 35% of draft power in the state.
    • More than 80% rural families keep livestock in their households. Contribution of animal husbandry sector to the GDP of the State has been estimated to be approximately 8 %. (Source: Animal Husbandry, Dept.)
    • Rajasthan ranks 2nd in Milk production in India.
    • Rajasthan ranks 2nd in per capita milk availability.
    • Rajasthan ranks 1st in wool production in India.
    • Rajasthan produces 10% of meat in India.
    • Rajasthan Ranks 14th in egg production in India
    • Constraints in development of Livestock in Rajasthan.
    • Livestock is an unorganized sector and holdings are very small, further much of the livestock belongs to economically weaker section which restricts it to being just source of livelihood.
    • Markets for livestock are also unorganized and suffers from inadequate investment by Public (State) & Private sector.
    • Inadequate availability of quality breeds
    • Lack of health &nutrition support, along with frequent occurrence of natural calamities that result in high occurrence of diseases and mortality.
    • Rajasthan is majorly an arid region and there is inadequate availability of fodder & feed resources
    • Inadequate infrastructure in terms of cooperatives, veterinary and knowledge support.

Types of livestock on basis of their utility:

  • Dairy (Milch) breeds:
    • Cows (Females): Gives high amount of milk
    • Bull (Males): are not good for work at farm
    • Examples: shahiwal, Red Sindhi, Gir and Deoni
  • Draught breeds:
    • Cows yield poor milk production
    • Bulls are good at draught and are used for carrying out agricultural work like tilling, irrigation and carting.
    • Examples Kangayam, Umblacherry, Amritmahal, Hallikar.
  • Dual Breeds:
    • Cows are good at milk production
    • Bulls are good at doing work
    • Examples Ongole, Hariana, Tharparker, Kankrej, Krishna valley, Rathi and Goalo Mewathi.

Different types & breeds of Livestock available in Rajasthan:

 Breeds of Cows in Rajasthan:

  • Nagauri
    • Origin from Suhalak area Nagaur.
    • This species gives less milk.
  • Kankrej
    • Kankrej is found in Rajasthan’s southwestern districts of Barmer, Sirohi & Jalore.
    • Gives daily average of 5-10 litres of milk.
    • The bull of this variety has good draught capacity.
  • Tharparkar Breed
    • Origin of the breed: Malani (barmer)
    • Cows excellent production of milk.
  • Rathi Breed
    • Rathi belongs to northwestern rajasthan and is found in Sr Ganganager, Bikaner, Jaisalmer.
    • Essentially a Milch variety that is cows are good at milk production but males lack draught power.
  • Gir Breed
    • Gir breed comes from Gir forests of Saurashtra in Gujarat.
    • In Rajasthan it is found in Southeastern Ajmer, Chittorgarh, Bundi, Kota

Breeds of Sheep in Rajasthan:

  • Jaisalmeri
    • Found in Jaisalmer
  • Naali
    • Found in Hanumangarh, Churu, Bikaner & Jhunjhunu.
    • Yields large quantity of wool
  • Maalpuri
    • Found in Jaipur, Dausa, Tonk, karauli & Sawai madhopur
  • Magra
    • Gives approximately 2 Kg of Wool per year
    • Found in Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Churu, Nagaur
  • Pugal
    • Originated from Pugal in Bikaner
  • Chokla or Shekhawati
    • Also referred to as Marino of India
    • It yields best quality wool and gives around 1-1.5 Kg per year.
  • Sonari or Chanothar
    • Found in Banswara, Bhilwara, Dungarpur and Udaipur

Breeds of Camel in Rajasthan:

  • Bikaneri
    • Found in Bikaner, Gangangar, Hanumangarh & Churu
  • Jodhpuri
    • Found mostly in Jodhpur & Nagaur districts
  • Nachna:
    • This breed is fast-runner variety of camels
    • Origin from Nachna Village in Jaisalmer
  • Jaisalmeri
    • Camels of Jaisalmeri breed are found in Jaisalmer, barmer, and jodhpur
  • Kutchi
    • Camels of this variety are mainly found in Barmer & Jalore
  • Jalori
    • Camels of this variety are mainly found in Jalore & Sirohi
  • Mewari
    • This breed is extensively used for carrying loads
    • Camels of this variety are mainly found in Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Partapgarh & Ajmer
  • Gomat
    • This breed to camel is famous for distant-transport and it is also a very fast runner
    • Camels of this variety are mainly found in Jofhpur and Nagaur
  • Gurha
    • Found in Nagaur & Churu
  • Kherupal
    • Found in Bikaner & Churu
  • Alwari
    • Camels of this breed are mostly found in East-Rajasthan.

Livestock Census 2012

  • It was 19th Livestock Census of Rajasthan
  • There are 577.32lacs Livestock (includes Cattle, buffalo, Sheep, Goat, Horse & Ponies, Mules, Donkeys, Camel, Pig)
  • Rajasthan has Poultry of 80.24lacs.
  • Barmer has the highest number of livestock in Rajasthan & Dholpur has minimum number of Livestock
  • Rajsamand and Dausa have highest livestock density of 292 per square kilometer

Important Documents & Links:

  • Rajasthan Livestock Policy
  • Livestock Census