The different ministries in India come up with different schemes to highlight & focus on particular area, which is significantly lacking than its counter-parts. Accordingly, depending on ministries these schemes can be central, or any state specific or a joint collaboration of both center & state. This page shall contain all posts & pages that related to government schemes & will try to answer all your questions regarding how government schemes are classified, funded and executed. We shall start by classification of government schemes and small history.
Classification of Government Schemes
Since Independence, Development had always been our priority and Planning Commission was established as an expert body that could focus on development and the strategy. Steadily Planning Commission began to occupy increasing role in development budget and “Schemes” as way of working was identified. In the following decades multiple schemes some focusing on country, some on state level, some even lesser than state were launched under aegis of Planning Commission. All of such schemes have been basically of three-types depending upon funding & implementing agencies. These are:
- Central Schemes or Central Sector Schemes
- Central Sponsored Schemes
- State Schemes
Central Schemes or Central Sector Schemes
- These are schemes that are funded (100%) by Central Government
- These schemes are implemented also by Central Government.
- They consist of mostly schemes that in main (common) agenda of central government.
Central Sponsored Schemes
- These Schemes can be funded jointly by both Central & State Government in some ratio (90:10, 75:25, 50:50 etc).
- But, the State Government implemented these schemes.
- These are Schemes that are funded (100%) by State Government
- State Government implemented these Schemes.
The Seeds of Change:
- However, Under Planning Commission the number of Central Sector Schemes got increased at a rapid pace. While, in 2007 their number was 99, it rose to 147 in 2011-12, and 2013 at 173. Consequently various committees like, Chaturvedi Committee, insisted on restructuring and reducing the number of such schemes.
- Further, 14th Finance Commission also increased state share in taxes to 42%, which meant less & less funds with center to spend on such schemes.
- As a result, the number of central sector schemes decreased rapidly and in 2015-2016 stands at just 31.
The NEW Classification: NDA Government
Recently, after the dissolution of planning commission and formation NITI Aayog, a Sub-Group of Chief Ministers was formed on Rationalization of Centrally Sponsored Schemes. The sub-group gave its recommendations and accordingly the Union budget identified & differentiated three-types of schemes, as:
- Core of Core Schemes
- Core Schemes
- Schemes that are optional for States
A. Core of Core Schemes
- These are schemes for which old (existing) funding pattern has been retained.
- They include schemes that aim to provide social protection and inclusion
- They include 6 main schemes as mentioned below:
- Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGA)
- National Social Assistance Program
- Umbrella Scheme for the Development of Scheduled Castes
- Umbrella Program for Development of Scheduled Tribes (Tribal Education and Van Bandhu Kalyan Yojana)
- Umbrella Program for Development of Backward Classes and other vulnerable groups
- Umbrella Program for Development of Minorities
- Multi Sectoral Development Program for Minorities.
- Education Scheme for Madaras and Minorities
B. Core Schemes
- These are schemes that form part of the National Development Agenda
- The funding in these schemes will be shared basis and 60:40 between the Centre and the States (except 90:10 for the 8 North Eastern States and 3 Himalayan States).
- In case any scheme/sub-scheme in the above classification has a Central Funding pattern of less than 60:40, the existing funding pattern will continue.
- List of Core Schemes:
- Green Revolution
- Krishonnati Yojna
- Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna
- White Revolution
- Blue Revolution
- Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojna (PMKSY)
- Har Khet ko Pani
- Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Program and other schemes under PMKSY in Water Resources Ministry
- Per Drop More Crop
- Integrated Watershed Management Program
- Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna
- National Rural Drinking Water Programme
- Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA)
- SBA – Rural
- SBA – Urban
- National Health Mission (NHM)
- NHM : Rural and Urban Mission
- NHM : Human Resources in Health and Medical Education
- NHM : AYUSH
- Rashtriya Swastha Suraksha Yojna (RSSY)
- National Education Mission (NEM)
- NEM : Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
- NEM : Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan
- NEM : Teachers’ Training and Adult Education
- NEM : Rashtriya Uchch Shiksha Abhiyan
- National Programme of Mid-day Meals in Schools
- Integrated Child Development Scheme (Umbrella ICDS)
- Core ICDS
- National Nutrition Mission
- Maternity Benefits Programme (IGMSY)
- Scheme for Adolescent Girls, SABLA, KSY
- Integrated Child Protection Scheme
- Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna (PMAY)
- PMAY- Rural
- PMAY- Urban
- National Livelihood Mission (NLM)
- NLM- Rural – Aajeevika
- NLM- Urban
- Forestry and Wildlife (F&WL)
- (F&WL)- National Mission for a Green India
- (F&WL)- Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats (including Project Tiger and Project Elephant)
- (F&WL)-Conservation of Natural Resources and Ecosystems
- Urban Rejuvenation Mission (AMRUT and Mission for Development of 100 Smart Cities)
- Modernisation of Police Forces
- Infrastructure Facilities for Judiciary
- Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLAD)
C. Optional Schemes
- These are Schemes that are optional for the State Governments. That is, State Governments can decide whether to implement them or not.
- In case state governments decides to implement any of the scheme then fund sharing pattern will be 50:50 between the Centre and the States (80:20 for the 8 North Eastern States and 3 Himalyan States).
- Optional Schemes include:
- Border Area Development Program,
- National River Conservation Plan,
- Shyama Prasad Mukherjee RURBAN Mission
Now, all of the above schemes have relation to the Union (Center) and so have been mentioned in Union Budget. But, apart from the above schemes there is one more type of scheme that is present:
- You can recall them from old classification
- These are schemes that have been conceptualized, funded and implemented by the state governments
- Hence, they are different for different states.
- ##Give away: You can identify them by their name.example chief minister falana falana yojna – Chief Minister Jal Swawlamban Yojna, Chief Minsiter Rajshree Yojna. Of Course, this is not a rule.
- Here, We shall also update State Schemes for Rajasthan.
Now that you have seen & understood types of schemes based on funding & implementation. Questions in examination are different in Prelims & Mains (both IAS & RAS). While in prelims questions are specific and you need to know what exactly is the scheme. Question in mains shall be sector specific. Example: Role & efforts of Government in Education Sector. Hence, we need to rearrange the schemes based on Sectors on which they Focus.
Hence, rearranged Listing of Schemes based on Sectors:
The section shall be updates gradually to include details under various heads of the schemes and topic list.