Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization Indus Valley Civilization existed between 3300-1600 BC in three phases namely early, mature and late phases. It was discovered in 1921 and belonged to Bronze Age. Indus Valley Civilization was located on the banks of the river Indus, particularly at the bends that provided water, easy means of transportation of produce and other goods and also some protection by way of natural barriers of the river. Sites Continue Reading

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel: Our Sardar Patel

The Union Ministry of Home Affairs has declared 31st October, 2016 as the Rashtriya Ekta Diwas with ‘Integration of India’ as the theme. The Government of India had decided to observe the birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel as the ‘Rashtriya Ekta Diwas’ (National Unity Day) on 31st October every year. Quick fact: October 31 is also the death anniversary of former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel: Sardar Patel was born Continue Reading

Temple Architecture of India

The Hindu temples fall into three basic categories depending on their architecture. Hence, Temple Architecture of India includes: B. Cave Temples: Cave Temples form the earliest form of surviving temples in India. B. Rock Cut Temples: These followed Cave temples. C. Structural (Free Standing) Temples Prominent types included Nagara, Dravida, Vesara Latest and most easily visible form of temple architecture.   A. Hindu Cave Temples: These form the earliest form of surviving temples. Continue Reading

Harikatha: Traditional art of story-telling in South India

Harikatha, the traditional art of story-telling in South-India has been in NEWS recently, on account of recent revival. What is Harikatha? Story telling is a popular performing art in India. Each region has developed its own style and tradition of story telling in various regional languages combining musical compositions between the narrations. Epics and Puranas (ancient stories of wisdom) in Sanskrit are the common story material for all or most Continue Reading

Buddhist Architecture of India

The earliest Buddhist monuments in India are attributable to Asoka (273-232 A.D) who exerted his energies and resources of his empire for propagation of Buddhism.  Three main types of structures are associated with buddhist architecture in India, they are: Stupas Viharas Chaityas Apart from these building, Pillars (Stamba) also form an integral element of buddhist design and architecture Buddhist Architecture: A. Stupas Mound-like structure containing Buddhist Relics Construction: Brick work , Continue Reading


Introduction During 15th and 16th century A.D. the European society witnessed tremendous changes. The beginning of Renaissance developed enquiring spirit and scientific outlook among the Europeans. The Reformation movement challenged the medieval religious set up. It was against the Orthodox Church and the abuses of the pope. It gave birth to a new religious order i.e. Protestantism. The age of Enlightenment was the age of reason and science. It enhanced Continue Reading

Classical Dances of India

The criteria for being considered as classical is the style’s adherence to the guidelines laid down in Natyashastra, which explains the Indian art of acting. The Sangeet Natak Akademi currently confers classical status on eight Indian classical dance styles: Bharatanatyam (Tamil Nadu), Kathak (North, West and Central India), Kathakali(Kerala), Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh), Odissi (Odissa), Manipuri (Manipur), Mohiniyattam (Kerala), and Sattriya (Assam). All classical dances of India have roots in Hindu arts Continue Reading

Musical Instruments of India

Natya Shastra, compiled by Bharat Muni, divides musical instruments into four main categories on the basis of how sound is produced. Tata Vadya / Chordophones- String instruments Sushira Vadya / Aerophones- Wind instruments Avanaddha Vadya / Membranophones- Percussion instruments Ghana Vadya / Idiophones- Solid instruments (1) TATA VADYA – STRING INSTRUMENTS Sound is produced by the vibration of a string or chord. Vibrations are caused by plucking or by bowing on Continue Reading

Puppet forms of India

Different Types of Puppets in India Ancient Hindu philosophers have likened God Almighty to a puppeteer and the entire universe to a puppet stage. Themes are mostly based on epics and legends. 4 Main types: String Puppets Shadow Puppets Rod Puppets Glove Puppets STRING PUPPETS Marionettes having jointed limbs controlled by strings allow far greater flexibility Kathputli, Rajasthan Carved from a single piece of wood Large dolls – colourfully dressed. Continue Reading

Folk Theatre of India

BHAND PATHER(JASHIN) – KASHMIR Unique combination of dance, music and acting. Satire, wit and parody are preferred for inducing laughter. music is provided with surnai, nagaara and dhol. Since the actors are mainly from the farming community, the impact of their way of living, ideals and sensitivity is noticable. SWANG – HARYANA Mainly music-based. Gradually, prose too, played its role in the dialogues. Softness of emotions, accomplishment of rasa along Continue Reading

Historical Travelers to India

Much of our knowledge of ancient and medieval Indian history comes from the accounts of foreigners who as pilgrims, travellers and traders crossed the seas and difficult land routes to reach India. In their writings on their observations and experiences of a country new and strange to them, they left valuable contributions to the historical understanding of early Indian society. As outsiders, they found worthy of mention facets and facts Continue Reading