Rana Kumbha, son of Rana Mokal, became the ruler of Chittorgarh in 1433. Rana Kumbha fought three battles with Mahmud Khilji, Sultan of Mandu:
- Battle of Mandavgad
- Battle of Mandalgarh
- Battle of Banas
In all three battles, Rana Kumbha inflicted defeat to Sultan of Mandu. While battle of Mandavgad took place in modern Madhya Pradesh, battle of Mandalgarh and Banas took place in Rajasthan.
Background of Battle of Mandalgarh & Banas:
Battle of Mandavgad:
Mahpa Panwar who was one of the assassins of Kumbha’s father, Rana Mokal, was sheltered by the Mahmud Khilji, Sultan of Mandu. Rana Kumbha demanded surrender of refugee from Mahmud Khlji but he refused. This initiated hostilities between Mewar & Mandu and Rana Kumbha advanced to attack Mandu.
In 1440 A.D, the two armies met at Mandavgad in which the Sultan’s army was utterly routed. Mahpa Panwar escaped to Gujarat and Rana Kumbha captured Sultan Mahmud Khilji and brought him captive to Chittorgarh. He remained a prisoner in Chittorgarh for a period of six months, after which he was liberated without ransom, by Rana Kumbha.
- Rana Kumbha built the great Vijay Stambha(Tower of Victory) in the fortress of Chittorgarh to commemorate this victory.
- Ahmad Shah (ruler of Gujarat), and Muhammad Shah (ruler of Delhi) cooperated with Rana Kumbha in his combat against Mahmud Khalji. During this period, the Sultans of Delhi and Gujarat conferred on Rana Kumbha – the title of Hindu-suratrana ( Hindu Sultan ). Rana Kumbha was the first Hindu ruler to be given this accolade by the Muslim Sultans.
Hadoti Expedition of Rana Kumbha:
After the release, Mahmud Khilji was restored as Sultan of Mandu, however,he nurtured the desire to take revenge and wipe off his disgrace of his defeat in Battle of Mandavgad. An opportunity came in 1442 A.D, when Rana Kumbha left Chittorgarh for an expedition against Hadoti. Finding Mewar unprotected, Mahmud Khilji invaded Mewar.
Battle of Mandalgarh:
The Sultan arrived at Kumbhalmer and prepared to destroy the temple of Bana Mata in Kelwara. A Rajput chieftain named Deep Singh successfully opposed the Sultan for seven days. On the seventh day, Deep Singh was killed and the temple fell into the hands of the Sultan. He razed it to the ground and burned the stone image that was kept in the temple. Flushed with success, Khilji advanced to attack Rana Kumbha, leaving a part of his army to take the fortress of Chittorgarh.
When information reached Rana Kumbha, he left Hadoti to return to his dominions and confronted Sultan’s army near Mandalgarh. A battle ensued at Mandalgarh in which Kumbha defeated Sultan and he fled towards Mandu.
Battle of Banas:
In 1446 A.D, Mahmud Khilji made another attempt to retrieve the disaster and marched towards Mandalgarh with a large army. On October 11-12,1446, Rana Kumbha attacked Mahmud Khilji, while he was crossing the Banas River. Mahmud Khilji was again defeated in the battle and again fled to Mandu.
Result of the three battles:
For about 10 years after these defeats, Mahmud Khilji did not venture to take offensive against Rana Kumbha.